(PDF) Research and Challenges on Bitcoin Anonymity

bitcoin fog issues?

i don't know if i'm just being paranoid but around 2 hours ago i deposited about 3/4 of a bitcoin into my bitcoin fog account. blockchain.info says 10 confirmations but my BTC have not arrived.
submitted by throwaway34738294723 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

bitcoin fog issues?

i don't know if i'm just being paranoid but around 2 hours ago i deposited about 3/4 of a bitcoin into my bitcoin fog account. blockchain.info says 10 confirmations but my BTC have not arrived.
submitted by 4y3782aseufyaufyasef to TOR [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Fog deposit issues again?

Hey there!
About 7 hrs ago I sent ~0.9 BTC to my Bitcoin Fog deposit address but it's still not there. Blockchain says, there are 42 confirmations.
Anyone else having this problem right now?
submitted by asrael1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Fog withdrawal issue not fixed

The fog might be working again, however the missing coins that allot of people are missing during the event have not been sent.
Support acknowledged they had withdrawl issues , and have said it's now fixed. Maybe so but the missing coins are still missing.
Support have not responded to any support tickets for over 5 days. No one has got their missing coins back that were effected by this glitch/theft
If anyone can prove me wrong please respond or respond if you are in the same boat.
Starting to not look good
submitted by Heretic14 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ethyl-Tianeptine-i Review

Warning long. Deviated to show my use of different opioids to compare then. Skip to the end for a quick dosage guide for high-moderate opioid tolerance for someone who's never done anything stronger than Mboxs back in college before presses.
I have an opioid addiction that comes and goes depending on if I'm Kratom. I live in a state where kratoms illegal. I'm moving to Chicago for access to kratom and weed. I've been dabbling with opioids since middle school and never had an addiction until I quit alcohol in 2017. I'm three years sober off that and I've been hooked on Tianeptine Sodium twice since that. At 3gpd my WD was bad but not terrible like people have reported. This was mainly due to helper meds.
As of now I'm cycling 2map, Ethyl-Tianeptine-i and O-DSMT. Some side effects and long term dangers of 2map make me wanna remove it. I'm gonna try my hardest but now it's hooks are in me.
The first part is to show my personal knowledge of Tianeptine dosage. I've personally been using this product sparingly since I discovered it in March. More often recently as part of the cycle. It's billed as 5x stronger. It easily feels like 6x because of my medium tolerance and the doses it takes for me to get effects.
For chronic pain, addiction, I recommend getting the solution for ease of dosing it's 30mg 750mg with 1ml=25mg. I've read it's less serotinergic than Tianeptine Sodium. That checks out. I still recommend cycling with O-DSMT, or if you're on something like Etazene to keep you well until your Etazene arrives. Personally I'm hoping to flood myself with 25x kratom extract when I move to Chicago in a week so I don't have to keep swapping out opioid/mu agonist RCs, but you do you.
Since my tolerance is a bit jacked, the dosages and effects seem more like 6x, but it may be 5x and just hits harder and makes the pain go away. I jacked myself up straining hastening to finish an art project in an awkward position, right before packing and moving heavy boxes. I also have chronic pain and would use kratom and RCs to manage strain at work since 2017. When working at a soul food restaurant I occasionally would be gifted perc 5s and 7.5s from the best cook so I could keep up. I would still fall behind from pain, also pregaming with gabs, and taking 2map (90mg oral capsule) before and during work. Part of this for mood, since I had specific work stressors working with felons at an affordable fine dining establishment deep in the giant hood in a poor ass city--as the only white boy. Crazy shit would go down--wanna know, ask in comments, digressed enough, a few white girls worked there too but 90% ghetto black folks. Cooking at the deli was less stressful (Covid switch) was mainly 2map (50mg before and on break) gabs, and Canadian NSAIDS with methocarbamol. I had been mainly off of Tianeptine Sodium during this period due to cost and extra serotinergic action. Ethyl-Tianeptine-i is less serotinergic, in a similar way that O-DSMT is less serotinergic than tramadol. We need PKs only FFS it'll automatically help mood.
So Tianeptine Sodium since 2017. I've used kratom since 2012--i have chronic gout pain and cheat because beef and shellfish trigger it but are delicious. If clams and oysters count as shellfish I cheated yesterday without thinking. I think it does from pain. I was dosing 2map pretty often before lunch hoping my Ethyl-Tianeptine-i would arrive saving my last 50mg 2map dose in case it didn't arrive. Took it immediately after lunch as that all over pain was returning.
So back to dosing. 25mg=1ml and it's 5-6x stronger than sodium. I don't ever take as little as 1ml and I don't divide mls until the bottom of the bottle. For my high--moderate tolerance to PKs I took 2ml--50mg (250--300mg sodium equivalent). Pain returned 4hrs later and took night meds (1mg kpin 600mg Gabs 5mg Olanzapine) along with 3ml--75mg (375mg-450mg) and got pain relief and the calming warmth. 3hrs later it was late and I wanted to go to sleep so I took 4ml with 300mg F-Phenibut. I regret that because I only got 4hrs sleep and woke up in a P-but fog and have been having sleep issues. Couldn't get back to sleep, fog disappeared with 10mg Adderall and 50mg N-methyl-cyclazodone which also motivated this post. Seeing Dr. soon specifically for liver and kidney function and to establish PCP in Chicago. As for cost, a bottle is very affordable. I always get F-Phenibut or N-methyl-cyclazodone to hit $50 and free UPS delivery. With rewards program and Bitcoin discount it's kicked down to $38 with the bonus chem. I need that delivery because it's one day as I'm somewhat local
Tl:Dr Major takeaways. It lasts an hour longer than Tianeptine Sodium, it's less serotinergic, making it more appealing and cleaner, and with more traditional effects.
Quick guide for those currently on RC Opioids 25mg--too mild 50mg--mild/moderate 75mg--high--moderate 100mg--high
If no tolerance then divide all these by 2. Don't take this as gospel YMMV.
Edit: I'm not sure I oversold it or not. It had the "Everything Hurts" pain under control until I took 40mg Adderall 50mg of N-Methyl-Cyclazodone then 20mg Dexedrine and of course all my muscles hurt like hell. Didn't wanna keep redosing it. Naproxen doesn't touch it. Instead when I took a 75mg dose I also took a half-o of kratom. Did that 2hrs ago and I feel great. Good combo. Boosted mood too, which is weird because Kratom has some antagonists in it. I think it's because since I've been on these I haven't had any Kratom at all so the tolerance to the plant dropped to zero.
submitted by StoopSign to researchchemicals [link] [comments]

current solutions to issues feel less like addressing the root cause and more like bandaging a gaping wound

example: current vendor changes.
"people are abusing keytools, SICC cases and such to give buyers multiple high-value keys and bitcoins. perhaps there should be flagging of such accounts that regularly hand out items of these values in tandem with things like extremely high K/D ratios and rapidly increasing net worth."
another example: the VSS/VAL and other 'meta' weapons
"guns like this excel at short ranges, where a majority of Tarkov fights tend to occur. given that there's a large variety of firearms in the game, especially those designed for longer ranges, where fog of war and random clutters of items end up making them pretty much useless in the game. perhaps we could open sightlines a bit to give all firearms situational usage (to a reasonable extent)?"
NAH BUFF PRAPOR'S SELLING PRICE LMAO (never mind how easy they are to obtain from raiders anyway)
on that note: boss/raider AI
"hey, people are cheesing these raiders and Killa and such with easily exploitable sightlines and hitstun mechanics that make what should be formidable opponents absolutely trivial, but they also do dumb manuevres eg. powersliding into an RPK burst that seem out of line in a realistic FPS, on top of things like arbitrary health buffs. maybe we should make them not so easy to cheese by changing their AI to be more hard, but fair instead of a drugged-up T-800?"
you get my point. a lot of changes feel either totally arbitrary or don't quite get at fixing the base issue, and instead just push it further back while hurting regular players.
submitted by Gigadweeb to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

Reactive Abuse - Why you should know about it (LONG personal story of abusive relationship within)

I just learned this term today and I felt like Andy crawling out of the pipe full of crap and being washed by the rain in the movie Shawshank Redemption.
So, if you've ever been in an abusive relationship and questioned whether you did anything wrong, I encourage you to read this and research reactive abuse. (https://breakthesilencedv.org/reactive-abuse-what-it-is-and-why-abusers-rely-on-it/).
My ex and I were together for almost 3 years. He was amazing when we first met. Very active, friendly, outgoing, ATTRACTIVE, all things I'd always wanted in an SO but couldn't really find in a bundle. Until we moved in together.
5 months into dating, he tells me he'd struggled with addiction in the past (cocaine & adderall) but that he'd been clean for a year. I was taking diet pills to suppress my appetite (legitimately prescribed). He knew & it hadn't been an issue. Anyway, I get to work one morning and notice the bottle, which I kept in my car, had 2 pills left. There should have been at least 15.
It never occurred to me to suspect him, but eventually I texted him to ask if he knew what happened. He immediately apologized, cried, basically didn't let me react and got super mad at himself. I learned later that this is actually a manipulation tactic: they're so hard on themselves so that you end up feeling bad for them & consoling them. It worked on me.
That day, he buys a lockbox so I can keep the pills and I start using it. Well, 2 weeks later I have to go out of town for a week. He asks me if he can drive my car while I'm gone because his was broken and he was in the process of buying a new one. I say yes. He drives me to the airport but I end up forgetting my pills in my car (stupid, I know, but it was like 4 am and I hadn't slept well). I call him to tell him, because the last time he told me that he didn't think I'd notice the pills were gone. In my mind, I'm thinking "if I tell him, it will help him stay accountable". We talk throughout the trip, I check in on him via phone, all goes well. I get back home and the pills are gone. Again.
I'm pissed at this point, and we get into an argument. But this time around, he's mad at me. He says it's my fault for leaving them out and how could I be so irresponsible and jeopardize his recovery? At this point, I kind of back off because I start to feel guilty. From then on, whenever the pills were brought up in an argument, he'd always blame me for it, and was super dismissive, like "yeah, yeah, I stole your pills, big deal, it was your fault anyway".
Living together was rough, because he was FILTHY. I'd seen his place before we moved in (he lived with roommates), and he was very respectful of their mutual spaces & kept them clean. I think he felt like because he was dating me and we were a team, he could drop the ball and I'd be there to pick up the slack. Or say I was being too demanding.
It was getting so bad that we would fight nonstop--I mean, he'd leave dishes in the sink for days, food on the floor, beer bottles everywhere, spit bottles (he dips) everywhere. He had a mole on the back of his neck that he picked until it bled. Well, there was blood everywhere--his clothes, the brand new couch we bought together, doors, walls, pillows, comforter. When I got mad, he'd just shut down and leave.
I'd thought it would be a good idea to get a credit card and add him as an authorized user, because he had bad credit from not paying a CC that he forgot about. We agreed that we'd only use that card for mutual expenses, like bills or groceries. Well, he ended up putting 2k on the card ($600 alone were for a suit for his brother's wedding, $100 were for bitcoin), which really screwed with my credit score. Every time I asked him about the money, he'd get mad and yell, telling me he'd "pay me back when he could" and how heartless I was being because I knew he didn't have the money and was stressing him out.
For reference, I am all by myself and have no family. His family is rich (like, trust fund rich) and his grandfather paid for college & first car for all his grandkids (also for their first HOUSE). I know that doesn't mean that he'd feel comfortable asking his family for money, but he also knew that I couldn't afford to not pay my CC bill--and his family could have helped him. I had no one to help me.
Anyway, we started getting into these fights late at night, after he'd been drinking. Here's where the reactive abuse part comes in. On several occasions, in the middle of a fight, he'd cross some serious lines--making fun of my mom for having an abortion, calling her a whore, threatening to have me deported (I'm an immigrant), telling me that the reason my father was/is emotionally distant is that I'm so broken that not even my parents could love me & everyone will leave me, etc.
Now, at first, it would just wound me. These were things shared in confidence, and he used them to attack me. After the arguments were over, he wouldn't even apologize. His reason? OF COURSE I should know that he didn't mean those things, and I obviously had to know that he was sorry.
Well, after a few of these I started to get angry and used his own trauma to hurt him. I'm better at it than he is, so my words usually cut him more deeply than his cut me. At that point, he'd usually start recording (or make me believe that he was recording) and then threaten to send the recording to my boss and friends.
I snatched his phone from his hand once, and ran to the door. He pinned me by the throat until I gave him the phone back. He's 6ft and muscular, so I couldn't move or breathe. Within 30 seconds, he denied choking me and has yet to acknowledge it (it's been almost 2 years since). Instead, if I ever brought it up, he would get FURIOUS with me for "making things up" and "gaslighting" him. At some point, a few days after that incident, he said something about my mom and I was so mad that I slapped him, twice. (He kept taunting me to do it again, but I was able to get ahold of myself and stop.)
I said a lot of screwed up things about him and his family, and I truly regret saying them. After the fog had cleared from each argument, though, he'd deny whatever awful things he'd done or said to me, and instead focused on what I had done or said, calling me the abuser. I always felt like I couldn't really hold him accountable without acknowledging that I had abused him, too, and I felt like the shittiest person. I thought, well, since I also said some screwed up things to him, this is my fault too. What I didn't realize is that when I lashed out, it was in response to him and it was when I felt trapped or cornered and needed a barrier to protect me from his insults. I still wish I hadn't stooped to that level, but I understand now that reactive abuse is a thing that happens, and that abusers will use that against you to convince you that you're to blame and manipulate you.
It was like dealing with Bruce Banner and the Hulk. Banner is not a bad person, and if he could just be that way all the time, then he'd be a good partner. But he randomly and often has "Hulk episodes", so I know it's not healthy or safe to try to make that work. He's been completely out of my life for a month now, but I know his reddit username and occasionally look at what he's posted (he doesn't know mine). The other day I saw that he replied to someone on AskMen about disclosing past trauma, and he went on and on about how his ex (me) weaponized that trauma and used it to hurt him during arguments. He got a lot of sympathy points and comments, and the whole time I kept thinking of what a huge bully he was to me and all the emotional damage he inflicted. And the worst part is that I bet he genuinely believes he was the victim, because being the victim means he doesn't have to apologize, change or fix anything about himself.
In conclusion, reactive trauma is a thing, and now I feel like less of a monster, and less guilty (though not less sorry) for the way I acted in that relationship. I hope that knowing this helps me heal and move on, because that shit is hard.
submitted by TheGellerCup to FemaleDatingStrategy [link] [comments]

Everyone complaining about the changes to combat RMT and Cheating - these 'fixes' are SUPPOSED to be bandaids!

People have been constantly bitching about the changes: I don't think people realize that the reason it's done in this manner is it's supposed to be band-aid.
It's not nearly as simple to address with complex, intricate solutions as people think.
This thread is what inspired this post, but there are, of course, MANY others.
(Btw if that fucking automod pops up and goes like 'hurr durr the only official way to report cheating is on the forums' I'm gonna neck a fool)

Proposed Solutions by the Community

"people are abusing keytools, SICC cases and such to give buyers multiple high-value keys and bitcoins. perhaps there should be flagging of such accounts that regularly hand out items of these values in tandem with things like extremely high K/D ratios and rapidly increasing net worth."
It's not as simple to 'flag' accounts as people think. It takes time and development resources away from other areas. Despite this, they are working on it.
That's why:
was done. It's an easy to implement band-aid solution. Only takes a few minutes of dev time and hits the means they are using to RMT so that they buy themselves more time.
And realistically these changes aren't fucking up your average player.
"guns like this (VSS/AS VAL) excel at short ranges, where a majority of Tarkov fights tend to occur. given that there's a large variety of firearms in the game, especially those designed for longer ranges, where fog of war and random clutters of items end up making them pretty much useless in the game. perhaps we could open sightlines a bit to give all firearms situational usage (to a reasonable extent)?"
It's almost like the fog was implemented because of massive stuttering. Tarkov already is CPU and GPU intensive. It's in progress of being optimized, but one of the easiest and most effective solution is to add 'fog' inside, to basically cover up that shit isn't being rendered past your fog line.
Even though that's the case, there's STILL loads of scenes in the current maps where there's large open areas. Namely, woods. But woods suck, precisely because of how barren it is. Trees everywhere. Nothing everywhere.
It adds additional cost to running it. Remember, this is a numbers game. I bet you also didn't realize that they nerfed the natural spawn rate of VSS/AS VAL? They're trying to reduce the number in circulation and allow other options to be viable because they're so much cheaper for similar effectiveness. It's called simulating a dynamic economy.
on that note: boss/raider AI
"hey, people are cheesing these raiders and Killa and such with easily exploitable sightlines and hitstun mechanics that make what should be formidable opponents absolutely trivial, but they also do dumb manuevres eg. powersliding into an RPK burst that seem out of line in a realistic FPS, on top of things like arbitrary health buffs. maybe we should make them not so easy to cheese by changing their AI to be more hard, but fair instead of a drugged-up T-800?"
lol because AI is so simple you can just hotfix it in right, it's not like it's literally one of the most complex problems in programming in its entirety and that every fps ever that has bots uses these same techniques to make them difficult through easy but artificial means. (Scaling aimbot, making them tankier, have vision of you, etc)
Basically: It's not that fucking simple. AI is hard. Real hard. If you knew the slightest thing about logic and programming you'd realize that it's almost impossible to create an AI that can actually learn from its circumstances. Instead, you just feed it information and it creates parallels and begins to assign responses, often with human direction, in response to certain behaviors. And that's intensive. And difficult. And not crazy effective.
Instead you basically hard-program their reactions to a handful of scenarios and then give him some artificial scaling to make them a challenge. It's much easier and better time-to-reward ratio.
you get my point. a lot of changes feel either totally arbitrary or don't quite get at fixing the base issue, and instead just push it further back while hurting regular players.
99% of these changes don't hurt the vast majority of players.
How often do you find TWO factory keys in a game? How often do you bring in over 200k roubles if you're not RMTing? How often, do you, the average player, seriously bring in an items case or weapons case to grab weapons? The only people I know of to do that are some streamers near end wipe.
These are SUPPOSED to be band-aids. They're TEMPORARY yet mostly effective solutions while they spend time to create more advanced and specific solutions to counter the cheating and the need that fuels it - RMTing.
So stop your bitching and realize that BSG aren't idiots. They're doing what they can, the best they can, in a really hard scenario and trying to tackle problems that most other developers never address.
submitted by dumnem to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

Establishing a smart contract commercial scenario: Chainlink, Zk-Snarks and sharding technology work together to make the ultimate killer

This text was translated from Chinese, open following link in Chrome and translate to see all images:
EDIT: found an English text with pictures:
Author: Feng Jie translation: Liu Sha
“The highest state of technology is to integrate into the various scenes of everyday life, to fade away from high-tech outerwear and become a part of everyday life.” – Mark Weiser
People in the future will not even think that smart contracts are "innovative." By that time, smart contracts would permeate every aspect of life, and people couldn't even imagine what the era of non-digital currency would look like.
Later historians may divide human business history into two eras, the pre-smart contract era and the post-smart contract era. After all, digital money has brought unprecedented changes to the nature and patterns of business practices in the real world. An anonymous member of the Chainlink community once said: "Smart contracts can change the DNA of the business."
Of course, like all the technological revolutions of the past, smart contracts also need to reach a "tipping point" to truly achieve large-scale applications. So we need to ask ourselves two questions:
  1. What exactly is this so-called tipping point?
  2. As of August 2019, have we reached this tipping point?
To reach the tipping point means unlocking the ultimate nirvana of business.
Tipping point We can think about this issue from the perspective of mainstream companies. Imagine what a perfect smart contract platform should look like. What characteristics should this platform have? Or what features must be possessed?
To reach the tipping point, you must establish a public chain with the following four characteristics:
  1. Privacy protection
  2. In addition to the cryptocurrency, the transaction can also be settled in mainstream legal currency and comply with the regulatory requirements of financial markets such as ISO 20022.
  3. Achieve scalability without sacrificing decentralization or security, that is, solving the "impossible triangle problem."
  4. Connect the external data under the chain, that is, solve the "prophecy problem."
Now that we have Chainlink, zk-snarks and sharding technology, we have reached this tipping point.
Next, let's explore how this ultimate nirvana is actually made. Our discussion will be mainly from the perspective of Ethereum, which is still the top smart contract platform for community size and mainstream applications.
So what about the private chain?
Before delving into it, I want to take the time to solve an unavoidable problem. The mainstream view has always believed that the private chain is a more suitable solution for the enterprise. Therefore, we first dialectically analyze the two advantages and two major drawbacks of the private chain.
  1. Centralization leads to relatively lower security
It's not surprising that IBM and Maersk's blockchain freight alliances have a hard time finding customers who are willing to join. How can other freight companies be willing to let their biggest competitors (Maersk) verify their trading data? Only madmen dare to do this.
  1. The staking of the horses occupy the hills:
This problem is even more serious than centralization. John Wolpert, co-founder of the IBM blockchain, wrote an excellent article called Breaking the Barriers to Realize Security: Why Companies Should Embrace the Ethereum Public Chain, which he covered in detail in the article.
If every company builds its own private chain, it will lead to chaos in the mountains. Today's B2B ecosystem is very complex. Imagine the innumerable private chains of the world intertwined to form a huge "spider web." This is not only cost-effective, but also not scalable.
The starting point of the blockchain is to break down barriers instead of building more barriers.
"One day, one of your big buyers called you to ask if you want to join their private chain. You promised. The next day you received a call from the wholesaler to ask you the same question. Then came the supplier, freight. Business, insurance company or even bank, and each company may have several private chains! Finally you have to invest a lot of time and cost to operate dozens of blockchains every day . If there are partners to let you join them at this time The private chain, you might say "Forget it, or fax me the order!" ”—Paul Brody (Ernst & Young)
“Every time you connect two private chains through a system integrator, you have to pay a lot of money .”
  1. Scalability: With the Ethereum public chain implementing fragmentation technology, this advantage is rapidly shrinking.
  2. Privacy protection: At this stage, the classification of public chain / private chain is actually not very accurate. The Aztec , Zether, and Nightfall protocols (both based on the zk-snarks protocol) effectively provide a "private chain model" for the Ethereum public chain, allowing it to switch between the public and private chains. Therefore, a more accurate classification should be the alliance chain and the public chain.
By 2020, the label of the public chain/private chain will gradually disappear. The public and private chains will no longer be two opposing concepts. Instead, the concept of publicly traded/private transactions and confidential contracts/open contracts is changed, and the scope of these transactions and contracts varies according to specific needs, either bilaterally or multilaterally or even publicly.
All in all, the private chain has two major drawbacks compared to the public chain. Not only that, but the two major advantages of the private chain are also rapidly disappearing.
“Technology will evolve over time, so there will be a variety of solutions to solve existing problems. Ultimately, the public-chain platform will have the same performance, scalability and data privacy as the private chain, while at the same time ensuring security and Decentralized."
Feature 1: Privacy protection (predictive machine and public chain privacy)
Enigma founder Guy Zyskind once joked in his MIT graduation thesis that smart contracts can only become commercially valuable if they become "confidential contracts." He later proposed that zk-snarks and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) are the most promising solutions. He said nothing wrong.
What is zk-snarks ? Zk-snarks is a zero-knowledge proof mechanism (ZPK). So what is the zero-knowledge proof mechanism? In short: a zero-knowledge proof mechanism allows you to prove that you own certain information without revealing the content of the information.
Vitalik Buterin explained this concept in detail from a technical point of view in an article published in 2017. Hackernoon also wrote an excellent article explaining the concept in an easy-to-understand way with the example of a five-year-old child and Halloween candy.
What is the trusted execution environment? The trusted execution environment lets the code run on closed hardware, and
1 ) The guarantee result cannot be tampered with
2 ) Protecting absolute privacy, even hardware running code can't get confidential information.
The most well-known trusted execution environment is Intel SGX. Chainlink has established a partnership with Intel SGX after acquiring Tom Crier.
Ernst & Young released the Nightfall agreement on Github on May 31, 2019. A well-known accounting firm with a history of 100 years will choose to add privacy features to the public chain instead of developing a private chain. This is a problem.
Since then, the community has been actively developing on this basis, not only to improve the code, but also to develop a plug-and-play Truffle Box for those who are not good at writing code. Blockchain communities and businesses generally rarely collaborate, so these collaborations fully demonstrate the popularity of Nightfall.
Prior to this, two zk-snark-based Ethereum public chain privacy protocols were introduced, namely AZTEC (Consensys) and Zether (Stanford, JPMorgan Chase). An obvious trend is slowly taking shape.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink uses both zero-knowledge proof and a trusted execution environment to complement each other. Trusted execution environments guarantee data privacy, even for nodes that cannot access data (this feature is critical for bank accounts and API keys).
Chainlink is still trying to implement a trusted execution environment, and nodes can access data temporarily, so authentication services are also needed. Although the credible execution environment is almost 100% foolproof, in theory, a strong shield has a spear that can penetrate it. Therefore, the team is currently trying to run zk-snarks in a trusted execution environment (Thomas Hodges mentioned this in the 2019 Trufflecon Q&A session). The combination of the two can form a very robust and complete system. The attacker must find a way to strip all the layers of an onion at the same time to make any effective attack (and it is already difficult to peel off a layer of skin).
“Chainlink combines a trusted execution environment with zero-knowledge proof to build what we call a defense-in-depth system, which means they provide all the tools needed for smart contract developers, including trusted execution environments, multiple nodes, and Data sources, fine margins, reputation systems, asymmetric encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, WASM, and OTP+RNG, these features allow smart contract developers to adjust the confidentiality and cost of contracts based on specific budget and security needs. Machine, Chainlink and its four major application scenarios》
In the future, zk-snarks may be upgraded to zk-starks (a fully transparent zero-knowledge proof mechanism) that protects the system from quantum computer attacks. And the best thing about zk-starks is that it's more scalable than zk-snarks. In other words, it can better protect privacy, and the cost of gas will not increase.
If you want to learn more about zk-starks, you can read a popular science article written by Adam Luciano.
Feature 2: Scalability (scalability of predictive machines and public chains) To understand this problem, we can make an analogy like this:
A public chain is like a large enterprise, and every employee (ie, a node) must attend each meeting (ie, confirm each transaction). Imagine how inefficient this company is! Only customers who have a lot of money (ie gas fees) can get their requests to the forefront. And this is not the most serious problem. The most serious problem is that the more employees (ie nodes) who join the company, the harder it is for the company to function properly! In the end, the company not only failed to expand linearly, but also became smaller and smaller. Although this guarantees decentralization and security to the greatest extent, the price is completely abandoning scalability.
There are various temporary fire fighting solutions, but no one solution can completely solve this "impossible triangle problem." For example, EOS uses the DPOS mechanism (share authorization certification mechanism), where only 21 super nodes (many of which are well-known nodes) are responsible for verifying all transactions.
Sidechains (such as Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Ethereum's lightning network) guarantee scalability and decentralization at the expense of security.
So how to use the fragmentation technology to solve this problem? Let's make another analogy:
In reality, there is only one company that is not too much to ask everyone to attend all meetings, that is, small start-ups (that is, private chains that limit the number of nodes).
In most cases, large companies divide employees into thousands of teams (ie, shards), and each team's principal (ie, the certifier) ​​is responsible for reporting to the senior management (ie, the main chain). If people from different teams need to collaborate (and sometimes also), then they can collaborate by cross-shard receipts. If a new employee joins the company, the team can be re-segmented (ie re-sharding). This allows for linear expansion.
In fact, the process of developing a start-up to a large enterprise is surprisingly similar to the process of Ethereum 1.0 developing into Ethereum 2.0.
“The Ethereum 1.0 period is that several people who are alone are trying to build a world computer; and Ethereum 2.0 will really develop into a world computer.” Vitalik Buterin said in the first piece of the workshop.
Since Ethereum was not originally built on the principle of fragmentation, it takes seven steps to achieve the goal (this is a bit like the word morphing solitaire game). The first step is planned for January 3, 2020.
At the same time, developers can use many other blockchain platforms designed based on the fragmentation principle. Some platforms, including Zilliqa and Quarkchain, are already compatible with Chainlink.
If you want to see more in-depth technical analysis of shards, check out an article by Ramy Zhang.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink has the following two characteristics:
1 ) Use Schnorr threshold signatures to quickly reach consensus in a cost-effective manner. The next version of the chain only needs 16,000 gas.
2 ) We have previously discussed the need to use trusted execution environment hardware to ensure that nodes cannot access sensitive data. Since you have hardware in your hand, you can use it to do some actual computing work, so that you can properly reduce the amount of computation on the smart contract platform.
"With the SGX system (Town Crier) and zero-knowledge proof technology, the oracle can be truly reliable and confidential, so the boundaries between the oracle and the smart contract are beginning to flow... Our long-term strategy... is to let The predictor becomes the key chain of computing resources used by most smart contracts. We believe that the way to achieve this goal is to perform chain operations in the oracle to meet various computing needs, and then send the results to the smart contract."Chainlink White Paper, Section 6.3 (26 pages)
Of course, this “long-term strategy” has certain risks, unless Chainlink can implement a trusted execution environment and its service provider ecosystem can achieve a qualitative leap. However, the Chainlink team's vision is absolutely forward-looking: under-chain computing is a key factor in ensuring that blockchains are not dragged down by large amounts of IoT data.
The Internet of Things has dramatically increased the current state of big data. At present, most of the data is still generated on the software side, and it is not real-time data, and most of the data in the future will be real-time data generated on the sensor side. One of the big drawbacks of real-time data is that it increases storage pressure. For example, Coughlin Associates expects an unmanned car to generate 1G of data per second. This means that the same car will produce 3.6T data per hour!
The only viable solution is to do real-time analysis of the data, rather than storing the data first. In the Global Cloud Index: 2016-2021 Forecast and Methodology White Paper, Cisco predicts that more than 90% of data in 2021 will be analyzed in real time without storage.
That is to say, the essence of data is that it can only exist in just one instant. The nature of the blockchain is not to be modified, so the two are as incompatible as water and oil.
The solution is to analyze the raw data under the chain, extract the meaningful results and send them to the blockchain. The combination of fragmentation technology and trusted execution environment forms a new computing architecture, similar to the cloud computing-fog computing-edge computing architecture.
It should be noted here that it is good to improve computing power, but this is not the main purpose of the blockchain.
The fundamental purpose of the blockchain is not to reduce the original cost of computing and data storage. After all, technology giants such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce, Tencent, Alibaba, and Dropbox have built world-class cloud services. The centralized server wins high computational efficiency (but the blockchain will greatly improve the computational efficiency through fragmentation technology, and will catch up with it one day). The value of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust. Nick Szabo calls it "social scalability" (this is a relative concept to the "operational" scalability we have been talking about). Vitalik Buterin also made it clear that the meaning of smart contracts is to accept small arithmetic delay penalties in exchange for a substantial reduction in "social costs."
Alex Coventry of the Chainlink team once raised the question: "We have missed many opportunities for cooperation and reciprocity because we can't confirm whether the other party will fulfill the promise?"
Is there any potential for data storage projects like Siacoin and IPFS? What about decentralized computing projects like SONM and Golem?
Siacoin 's core value proposition is not that its computing efficiency is higher than traditional cloud services. The cost of computing is required to split, repeat, and reassemble data. And companies are more capable of buying the latest and greatest hardware than individuals. Siacoin's core value proposition is to process data in an Airbnb-like mode, so management fees will be lower than traditional models. It also generates additional social value, such as flood control, privacy and security, and anti-censorship.
The same is true of Golem and SONM. Even with the most efficient protocol, it is inevitable that a small amount of delay will be imposed and fined to coordinate the hardware of different geographical locations. Therefore, under the condition that all other conditions are equal, the centralized hardware still has the advantage of faster computing speed. However, the core value proposition of the above project is to use the Airbnb-like model to reduce management costs.
We must strictly distinguish between "social scalability" and "operational scalability", and the two cannot be confused. I will explain these two concepts in detail when I discuss "Magic Bus and Lightweight Library" later.
Feature 3: Compatible with legal currency
Most mainstream companies do not regard cryptocurrencies as "real currencies." In addition, even if someone wants to use cryptocurrency for trading, it is very difficult to actually operate because of its high price volatility. I discussed the “price volatility problem” in detail in Chapters 8 and 9 of the previous article. These problems do not completely erase the existence value of cryptocurrencies, because cryptocurrencies also have many advantages that legal currency does not have. I am just emphasizing what we need to know more about the comfort zone of mainstream companies.
Chainlink acts as a universal API connector that triggers open banking payments. Chainlink is fully compliant with ISO 20022 and has established a long-term partnership with SWIFT (it is worth mentioning that SWIFT has not been updated for a long time and hopes to be updated after the SIBOS 2019 conference).
PSD2 will take effect on September 14, 2019. All banks in the EU will all comply with this new regulation by then. In other words, the bank must put all account data in the "front end" and can be called through the API. The approved third party (ie, the Chainlink node) can trigger the payment directly without the payment service provider.
Although the United States and Japan have not adopted similar laws, many banks still spontaneously promote the development of open banks. Banks open APIs to third-party developers to create new revenue streams and customer experiences that ultimately increase profitability. In addition, this will allow banks to better respond to competitors in the mobile payment and financial technology sectors in an APP-centric economic model.
As this open banking revolution continues, Chainlink will connect smart contracts with the world's major currencies (US dollar, euro, yen, etc.).
Only one external adapter is required to connect to the authenticated API. From a programming perspective, it is relatively simple to allow everyone in the community to contribute code to the code base (and thus achieve scalability). Chainlink has released adapters for PayPal and Mister Tango (European version of PayPal).
Feature 4: Data connection with the chain
Chainlink has been working on solving the "prophecy problem" and successfully succeeded on the main online line on May 30, 2019.
Chainlink has made many achievements in just a few months. Provable (formerly Oraclize) was successfully used on the Chainlink node and finally settled the debate about whether the predictor should be centralized or decentralized.
Synthetic Ether lost 37 million Ethercoins in a hack because it did not connect to Chainlink. Fortunately, the money was finally recovered and did not cause any loss. This lesson illustrates the importance of decentralized oracles.
In addition, both Oracle and Google have partnered with Chainlink to monetize their API data and create a virtuous circle to capture the market opportunities that Facebook missed.
There are new nodes coming online every week, and the network activity has been very high. The Chainlink team maintains a list of certified nodes in the documentation and Twitter releases. Twitter user CryptoSponge also set up a new development for the Tableau push update Chainlink team:
Regarding the importance of the current stage in the history of blockchain development, Brad Huston summed it up very brilliantly:
"The biggest problem with cryptocurrencies is to build bridges between cryptocurrencies, fiat currencies and big data. Chainlink is very beautifully narrowing the distance between the three. Now it can even be said: 'The bridge has been built.'"
Magic bus and lightweight library
Let's summarize what we discussed earlier. The real purpose of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust and achieve "social scalability."
Therefore, according to this logic, the main application scenarios of platforms such as Ethereum 2.0 and Zilliqa should be in the B2B field. I quote a sentence I wrote in a previous article:
“My conclusion is: If the smart contract is successful, it will also succeed in the B2B field first.”
The private chain itself is self-contradictory and destined to fail. It has led to the phenomenon of occupying the hills, thus increasing the social cost, which is in opposition to B2B itself, and ultimately it is self-restraint. ”
Before the emergence of fragmentation technology, even simple games (ie, etheric cats) could not be smoothly run on the public chain, let alone dealing with complex B2B contracts and even changing commercial DNA. With the sharding technology, everything is ready.
Despite this, we can't use Ethereum 2.0 as an all-powerful platform. Just now we said that although it is a good thing to speed up the calculation, this is not the real purpose of Ethereum 2.0. And before we also said that due to the irreversible modification of the blockchain, it is not good to deal with a large number of fleeting real-time data of the Internet of Things. In other words, we must be soberly aware that Ethereum 2.0 will not replace traditional web 2.0. Instead, we should make better use of the real advantages of Ethereum 2.0:
“There is a new concept now, that is to think of the Ethereum main network as a global bus... We use the Ethereum 2.0 main network to treat various business resources as a working group on Slack: it can be easily built and integrated. And restructuring. The SAP inventory management system in your company, the dealer's JD Edwards ERP system, and the financial technology partner's tall blockchain system can seamlessly interface, eliminating the need to develop an infrastructure specifically for each partner." - John Wolper describes his ideal "magic bus"
Ethereum 2.0 should be an integration center, not a data center or computing center. It should be a library built specifically to store B2B contract terms (to be honest, even with fragmentation technology, the amount of data is large enough).
We should not expect Ethereum 2.0 to be an all-powerful platform, but rather develop it into a "lightweight library."
If we reorder the pyramid model just now, the architecture of the magic bus is obvious:
Of course, the positional relationship in the above model is not static. With the development of 5G technology, edge computing and IoT sensors, they may bypass the cloud to directly interact (or even bypass the fog end). If the collaboration between Iotex and Chainlink is successful, then the edge can interact directly with the trusted execution environment.
Time will tell if Airbnb's shared data storage and computing model can make management costs lower than the current mainstream Web 2.0 model. Time will also prove whether the market really needs anti-censorship, anti-tampering, security protection and privacy protection. Do users really care about these social values ​​and are willing to pay for them? Do they think these are just the icing on the cake or the most fundamental value?
in conclusion
Whether it is the battle between web2.0 and web3.0 or the battle between cryptocurrency and legal currency, one thing is beyond doubt:
We have reached the tipping point, and the era of smart contracts with commercial value has arrived.
In fact, the only problem at the moment is the time issue, and the main roadblocks have been basically cleared.
  1. When will Ethereum 2.0 finish these 7 stages and be officially released?
  2. When will Chainlink use a trusted execution environment on a large scale? If the cooperation between Intel SGX and Town Crier fails, what alternative plans are there? Will Chainlink communicate with other blockchain teams that plan to use a trusted execution environment (such as Dawn Song's Oasis Labs)?
At present, the main technical problems in the ecosystem have been solved, and now it is only necessary to recruit a group of enthusiastic developers to do the work of “connecting the line”.
Digital currency has changed commercial DNA, and the future is full of possibilities.
The only thing that hinders us now is our own imagination. The future is infinitely imaginative, and the future will be the world of developers. Dapps is already overwhelming. There is no doubt that we have found the ultimate nirvana.
This text was translated from Chinese, open following in Chrome and translate to see all images:
submitted by QuantLink to LINKTrader [link] [comments]

Tier list for the new Ranked Patch! (write-up inside)

Tier list for the new Ranked Patch! (write-up inside)


A quick stream of consciousness write-up for an explanation of tier list for the current Season 2 Ranked patch in Apex Legends. Mostly relevant in Diamond+ queues.
Quick note: Most comps use Wraith and Wattson, plus a flex slot. For non-Wattson comps, usually Wraith and Pathfinder, with a flex slot (usually Bangalore)

Wraith (S+):
Always has been and continues to be a non-negotiable character in any meta. Portals allow for safe rotations without taking any poke damage or minimizing the amount of damage you take, helping massively with your shield cell economy, where shields are more valuable than bitcoin in high level play; portals also aid in being able to contest Game Packages safely if you are already playing within the safe zone; portals also aid in engaging into a fight while having an out from a 3rd party. Her hitbox is one of the smallest in the game, and combined with smart use of positioning, she can create a lot of space for her team when playing aggressively, while still being able to retreat safely to her own team if things are not going favorably. With the changes to fog mechanics ticking for up to 25 damage per tick in the endgame, her ghostwalk ability gains even more value than it already had previously, making Wraith deserving of being bumped up yet another tier, but let's not go there. Portal hopping in the end-game also has a massive value increase in terms of being able to avoid fog damage. TLDR, portal and ghost walk OP.

Pathfinder (S):
After the dreaded buggy hitbox, his mobility is still unparalleled to any other character, which makes chasing, flanking, disengaging, and solo play insanely strong. Pathfinder opens up a lot of angles to attack from, as well as makes securing high-ground much easier. Just putting a zipline to an opposing team on high ground causes a massive amount of pressure, even if you decide to never use it. While end circles are fairly predictable, every patch seems to change the way the circles curve to the end-game, which can throw off decision making depending on the playstyle of the group; this makes the value of his passive always relevant. There are also a lot of hiding spots that are only accessible to pathfinder which makes "ratting" for placement points a lot easier.

Wattson (S):
While its early to make too many concrete judgements, the value of Wattson is already easily accepted. With more LAN events on the horizon, Wattson will be a very good contender for one of the best characters in the game, due to the power of her ultimate. Once a Wattson is set up, it is near impossible to break her defenses, as the primary tool to push (grenades) is no longer usable. Her ultimate also saves on the shield economy when trying to gather information and poke, where disruptor rounds reign rampant. Wattson also opens up the option for more dangerous buildings and locations that are otherwise unusable without her. I predict that this character will make end-game circles far more dense and harder to maneuver in, since more spots will be available and defendable.

Lifeline (A, down from S):
Once a solid S tier character, she took a great hit in season 2 with her drone going out of commission in only two ticks of each fog. One of her great strengths in the previous patch was the ability to loot for long periods of time in the fog to gear up as much as possible, since she saved a lot of syringes for the group. She is also no longer able to outheal fog damage in the lategame. Nonetheless, she still has one of the smallest hitboxes in the game, as well as one of the best passives in the game. Her ultimate still has good utility, as it usually secures at least 1 purple armor throughout a match, as well as having the ability to create mobile cover to aid in controlling locations that might be difficult to hold without her. Her passive for 25% fast heal is also great for skirmishing to be able to create pressure much more often. Lifeline will still have a place in competitive play depending on a group's playstyle.

Bangalore (A):
With lifeline's popularity going down, Bangalore's power goes up, because less digital threats are being spawned off lifeline packages. Bang still has great dueling power with her passive, as well as the ability to escape from situations. One thing that is keeping Bangalore below S tier is the lack of team mobility and Wattson. While her air strike was once used in conjuction with portals and ziplines to create aggressive pushes and allow great bullying power, a Wattson secured on high ground completely nullifies that option. Nonetheless, her airstrike is still great defensive utility, which it was more commonly used for, as well as an anti third-party tool when engaging with another squad. Bangalore still pairs well with an aggressive style composition with characters such as Wraith and Pathfinder.

Gibraltar (A, up from B):
With the Gibraltar buff in a previous patch and the longbow/sniper buffs simultaneously, the viability of this character went way up from low tier to B tier. With yet another buff to his damage reduction, as well as the Disruptor Round meta, Gibraltar is worthy of being bumped up to A tier.
His personal shield is not affected by the increased damage by alternator's hop-up, effectively taking an extra 5 bullets before dipping into your shields. His personal shield allows him to conserve shields and out-trade any sniper, including a Kraber. In addition, Gibraltar and Caustic are the only two characters who cannot be 1-shot in the head when wearing purple armor and helmet by a Kraber. Like Caustic, Gibraltar's value goes up the closer to endgame you get. However, like an issue with Bangalore, Wattson's ultimate is a direct counter to Gibraltar's ultimate, so the ability to bully people off high ground can prove to be difficult. His dome shield is a very useful tool in endgame situations that have little cover to guarantee that your squad will be the 3rd party. Gibraltar is very good at holding angles when set up in good positions and must be played around properly to fully gain value out of his kit; does not fit an aggressive playstyle.

Caustic (A, up from B):
With many similar reasons above, I'm bumping Caustic up a tier. Caustic as seen a lot of experimentation in higher level play by a fair number of teams. His ability to bully people out of buildings and take it for your own is unparalleled, except with Wattson in the picture. However, his traps are still a useful tool to push with against a Wattson as you can bypass the trophy system with these, as long as you have enough time to do so. Caustic also pairs very well with Wattson, creating an even more indestructible defense. Like Gibraltar, Caustic's value increases the closer he gets to endgame, where his ultimate practically guarantees victory.

Octane (B, down from A):
Some places on the map are now changed or completely inaccessible, causing me to bump octane down a tier or two. I previously underrated this character until Exko made a massive twitter post on all the tech an Octane can provide to allow your entire team to bypass certain choke points. With season 2 now in play, more things still need to be discovered before he is bumped back up a tier or two, since Pathfinder mostly fills Octane's role, but better in most cases. Nonetheless, he is great for aggressive compositions, and is a good skirmisher.

Bloodhound (C, up from D):
While bloodhound got a nice buff to his Scan ability, it wasn't enough to push him/her into viability. His passive is his most useful tool for playing edge in order to figure out if and where you are getting gatekept. Scan's most useful function is to scout buildings that teams may be playing quiet for cheese kills. At least Bloodhound isn't Mirage tier.

Mirage (D):
His invisibility mechanic and changes weren't enough. He provides zero useful utility to a team, other than to style and tilt an opponent. Sucks to suck.
submitted by MoePork to apexlegends [link] [comments]

"If we can't get to 95% consensus on SegWit, we can't get to 95% consensus on anything" - Andreas Antonopolous

Sorry Andreas - I get the impression you don't like being quoted with this kinda thing.
Obviously everyone should do as much research as they possibly can and make their own minds up, but to the extent that the scaling debate has become politicised I think your voice can help clear some of the fog of war.
edit: quote was from this issue of Let's Talk Bitcoin. Also this more recent episode called Testify, where Andreas presents to the Australian Senate, was a seriously good listen. There's a lot of educating to be done on the topic of bitcoin, and we're lucky to have some very competent educators.
edit 2: if you only listen to one thing today skip to 22:48 on the Testify episode. The "Honestly, senator..." reply is gold.
submitted by Hitchslappy to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Do you hold Coins, Tokens, Virtual Currencies or all three?

Do you hold Coins, Tokens, Virtual Currencies or all three?
What do Facebook and JP Morgan Chase have in common? It might strike you as a strange question, with one company concerned with providing a social media platform, and the other being one of the largest banking institutions in the world.
Facebook’s venture into the world of cryptocurrencies with their Libra Coin introduced a whole new vocabulary and prised open the eyes of the most stubborn blockchain deniers. Feeds were suddenly flooded with posts about Libra, blockchain and the benefits it can bring and how Facebook can take the helm of the rudderless ship sailing towards the rocks of the murky uncharted waters of decentralisation.
Meanwhile, a little further back, banking giant JP Morgan, who were once one of Bitcoin’s most vocal critics, created their own digital coin, imaginatively called the JPM Coin, aimed at removing the volatile price fluctuations associated with Bitcoin. So JPM Coin is a 'coin' and Libra is a 'cryptocurrency', both owned by their respective corporations who have in many an observers mind stripped away one of the core ideologies of blockchain technology.
Pundits were quick to recategorise them as "virtual money" or "digital currencies" because by being run by corporations, users are required to trust them, thereby breaking the idea of decentralisation. While it may not be as clear cut as that, the idea that Facebook, a company plagued by privacy-related scandals, want you to give them access to your sensitive financial data is somewhat ironic.
Cryptocurrencies are a digital or virtual currency built with strong cryptography, making them highly secure and immutable. Most rely on blockchain technology, a distributed ledger verified by a decentralised network of computers, a concept the world has the elusive Satoshi Nakamoto to thank for. In the crypto space, the terms coin and token are often used interchangeably but are they actually the same thing? Let's take a more in-depth look.
Digital coins are native to their own blockchain. Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) are perfect examples of cryptocurrency coins as they both exist on their own independent ledgers. BTC operates on the original Bitcoin blockchain, and similarly, ETH is used on the Ethereum blockchain. As you might expect, these coins are used in the same manner as money as they are fungible, portable, can be divided into smaller dominations and are limited in supply.
Cryptocurrency coins can be used to pay for physical goods although as Ether is used within the Ethereum blockchain, it has additional functionality. The open-source nature of blockchain has allowed thousands of altcoins to be created by forking from the original Bitcoin protocol. So technically if the coin has its own blockchain, but it is not Bitcoin, it is known as an altcoin - although the versatility of Ethereum may see it being publicly regarded as an asset in its own right rather than an altcoin.
This brings us on to tokens. The significant difference between a token and a coin is that a token needs another blockchain platform to be able to operate. The most common platform is Ethereum because of its rich feature set and the ability to create smart contracts on it. Tokens built on the Ethereum blockchain such as the popular Dragon Coin (DRG), are known as ERC-20 tokens.
Tokens can be used for making payments (currency tokens), and many are used to create decentralised applications (utility tokens) which give holders access to the function of the project – like with DRG. Dragons evolution of the entertainment industry will see it achieving mass adoption across a range of vertical markets; however, it has compelling use cases in VIP gaming, eGaming and iGaming. Holders can convert their DRG into exclusive Dragon Global Chips which can only be used in a Dragon affiliated junket by changing them for non-negotiable gaming chips.
There is another token called a "security token" which is used to represent an individual's investment in a project. Security tokens are given value from a start-up but crucially don't provide the holder with any ownership of the company. People invest in these tokens at the ICO stage in the hope that their value will increase in the future, sometimes the investments pay off but take a quick look here at some abandoned projects.
So whether you own coins, tokens or virtual currencies, they can all be referred to as digital currencies because they exist only in a digital form and are therefore intangible. Digital currencies like Dragon Coin cut out any middlemen, which is why transactions made using the Dragon Social Wallet are low cost and happen almost instantaneously.
So far so good but as previously mentioned, the definitions are fluid and overlap and the slight spanner in the works comes up with the term 'Virtual Currency' which has entered modern parlance. Virtual currencies in this context are digital in nature and are typically issued by developers to be used as a payment method in a specific virtual community such as EA's FIFA points or more recently GTA's in-game casino. These in-game payment methods are not crypto-based and usually only occur in the game's ecosystems and should not be confused with the volatile virtual currencies in the crypto space.
This article aimed to clear some of the fog around the definitions used in the blockchain world and highlight the different uses for coins, tokens and virtual currencies however the industry is still in its infancy in many respects so new definitions will undoubtedly come to the fore. Definitions even vary between countries and indeed even in different parts of the countries. Some view cryptocurrencies as property, others view them as securities while others regard them as money and Japan also declaring them to be property.
In the fast-paced blockchain industry, all you need to do is follow the Dragon blog to keep up with the latest trends and developments. And rest assured that Dragon won't be taking to the seas. Dragon will by flying over them, looking down on currencies such as Libra stuck in the doldrums as they try to escape the tangled regulatory nets cast over them.

submitted by ellesiahaan to DragonDRG [link] [comments]

Scam Emulators: a Guide

After each new console release, the immediate question for many is "how long till its games get ported to PC" or if that's not possible, like with Nintendo and Sony's first party releases, "how long till the console is emulated". Homebrew hobbyists and emulator devs aren't the only ones aware of this thirst, however. Opportunist sociopaths with far more sinister goals are more than eager to take advantage of gullible people craving new emulators for new consoles.
In the hopes of sparing more people the trouble of doing a complete system format for their malware-infected computers because of their own idiocy or that of an excitable idiot acquaintance, here's a guide that hopefully helps telling which emulators are real and which are that just in name.
#1: If it's too soon after the console release, it's suspicious
In order for an emulator to be developed, the console first needs to be hacked first so that the following are extracted
The developers need to be able to execute unlicensed code on it to test hardware behavior and properly document it (the latter is sometimes possible with a developer unit, although it might have some limitations). You need to hear of someone reputable managing to load a "hello world" unlicensed program on a console (NOT a web page on a browser, or a video). After all, they need to be able to code their own demos, see how it looks on hardware, and have their hypothetical emulator replicate that behavior.
There's lots of work before an emulator can even boot up the most basic of "hello world" demos. Correct hardware memory mapping, timings, console boot-up initializations (even when spoofing services and processes like home menus)... can easily take up a lot of work. This is when hardware documentation provided by the console and GPU manufacturers is useful, and without those this part of development can be set back even further. And even then it doesn't discount cases where the console manufacturer withholds some information from the documentation either missing it in translation or on purpose (like Nintendo with a whole audio mode in GC games).
And then after booting simple demos, it can be a while before the first commercial games (often the simpler one, the shittiest ones, or 2D stuff) are booted.
Between the actual console hacking, and then preliminary work on a PC emulator getting up to a point it's usable, this can take easily 2 to 3 years. For example, CEMU, often cited as an example of an emulator with impressively fast development, took 2 years of research and internal experiments after the Wii U was hacked to make a demo only able to boot the decidedly not that flashy Shovel Knight and NES Remix.
Of course, exceptions exist like the GBA which had its emulator available around the American release (and before the European one), but this was more due to a combination of a massive developer kit leak before the Japanese release, and poor hardware security. Those early emulators were still not without their flaws either. Or the even rarer case of an in-house Nintendo emulator leaking like what happened with Ensata (for the Nintendo DS) in 2005 (Sony and Nintendo do make PC emulators for their consoles, in addition to the traditional setup of dev kits linked to PCs for logging stuff, but they don't release those emulators for obvious reasons).
#2: If it looks too perfect from the get-go, it's very suspicious
Emulators often don't implement everything in their first releases. Models can be warped, audio may be not supported or oddly-pitched, transparency can be nonexistent and as a result you'd see black rectangles everywhere, lightning and fog effects might not even be there, and so on. Often, the one thing working just like intended would be videos and static images.
If you see perfect footage of a complex 3D game that looks just like in real hardware, consider the high likelihood it was indeed recorded off real hardware with a capture card (or just lifted from a trailer / let's play).
Some scams have evolved their methods and would slow the video down with distorted audio. One of the more innovative scams used models ripped from other versions (likely PC) of Street Fighter IV, had them in wireframe over a white backdrop and with a HP bar shopped on top and tried to pass this static screenshot as "the first 3DS emulator".
#3: If it's just a binary released, exercise caution
Scams like these often come as binaries or installers. Installers are NOT standard procedure for emulators as they are perpetual buggy alphas that get updated all the time with not even bothering to keep save state compatibility. Sites usually get basic information about the hardware incorrect.
These programs will either come with no source code, or when they do actually bother making a source code (like the emu3DS scam) it actually does nothing, or the github code repository is empty aside from readme files like with the recent Nintendo Switch scam (to get with the times since more emulators now are open source than closed source). The name will be something simple ("switchemulator" "ps4-emulator") or iterating on an existing big name from earlier generations (3DesmumE, NO$GBA 3D, a Dolphin version with Wii U emulation on youtube with download links -and no it's not the wud file browser fork-...) to maximize search engine hits from idiots.
Sometimes, scamware include newer versions of dead emulators, like the fabled NO$GBA 2.7 (which was just the latest version, functional but laced with malware). One of the more innovative scams played ".3ds" "roms" which were actually 3DS videos, and the emulator was just a video player for those... with malware. But to its credit, it actually did run something by Nintendo. (the actual work on that video codec was by someone else though)
Until this subreddit, or other more reputable modding circles, report on a new emulator, and until semi-reputable sites like emucr host it, if a new emulator that nobody heard of besides you is too good to be true then it probably is.
What is it like to get a scamware emulator?
This blog documents some of the more notorious 3DS scams before the Citra days, and it makes for a good reading.
Parts of the scamware experience includes:
I don't believe you!! Why would someone tell lies on the internet?
The "developer" gets money from advertisments and surveys. Better if they're directly served to you and rooted in your computer as malware redirecting your browser to ads, logging your personal data, or using your machine's ressources to mine bitcoins for someone else.
Some vocal minority of open source advocates unfortunately label any recent closed-source emulator as a virus (even after it's proven false), and it doesn't help many new programs that are not regularly downloaded or ones coded directly in assembly (because hacked programs rewrite some parts of a compiled build in assembly "hacked" on the program like an external tumor tied with hooks and JMP opcodes) are often labeled by anti-virus suites as false positives. In these cases, the best thing to do is to wait for someone else to verify it works, or trust the developer in case he/she proved himself to be the real deal when it comes to homebrew development or reverse engineering the hardware in question.
submitted by GH56734 to emulation [link] [comments]

9/12 New Fear of God x Vans, Off-White x VaporMax/AJ1, Other Products, and More!

Hey Bros,

I hope you are having a good day. A few announcements for you.

New Products

Firstly, for the JerryBois and "fans" "of" "Virgil" out there, we are happy to announce we have some new products available! All prices listed include shipping via DHL/EMS, and are for CC payment. You can deduct 7% off this if paying with WU/MG, and another $10 with coupon code "Appreciate"! Products are as follows:

Payment Update

We are proud to offer Bitcoin! Contact us on skype or WhatsApp for the address. We still offer Western Union (7% off), MoneyGram (7% off), CC, PayPal gift (return customers only), and TaoBao agent (22% off). To review the ordering guide for TaoBao agent orders, Click Here.
Lastly, SS v2 pics should be ready within the week. Looking like Zebra will be first. They will be posted, and your honest feedback will be very appreciated! We use this to improve the quality of the shoes. You can also expect a giveaway as well very soon 😏. Also, reminder to use code "Appreciate" at checkout for $10 off all orders! This stacks with payment method discounts as well! I appreciate all of you and your input and thoughts. Even the negative feedback and hate posts. We use this as motivation to get better. I will not give up.
That's all for today.
submitted by Ericsneakers to EricSneakers [link] [comments]

Alright, I'm sick of this.

My blockchain brethren, it's obvious we need bigger blocks asap. I think "we need bigger blocks" is an almost unanimous opinion at this point, but we need to decide on a size and rally behind that single size in order to get anywhere with the miners. Here's the plan:
  1. Vote on a size. I will conduct a poll. I think as a community we can agree that even if we want a size different than the winner of the poll, the winner of the poll is far, far better than nothing. For Bitcoin's sake, even if you prefer a different size, let's just choose one and stick with it for now. My personal choice is 4MB, as I think that gives us ample time to analyze proposed long-term scaling solutions, but I will support whatever the results are.
  2. Choose/create a Bitcoin client that runs on the chosen block size. I'm out of the loop in this regard. Do any existing clients currently support alternative block sizes? What software do mining pools run? We need to make this as easy as possible for them. If the software doesn't exist we'll need to create it. This should not be too difficult.
  3. Decide on a date for the switch. We need to choose a reasonable date that takes into account the time required. This will be clearer after steps 1 and 2, but I think it's possible within a month.
  4. Collectively email and tweet the miners on a specific date, informing them of the plan, the size, the date, and the software. I do not anticipate much friction. Everyone knows that this is necessary and a deluge of community support will further clarify the community's opinion on the issue. The key here is coordination.
Regarding SW and BU: Personally, I think BU is the way forward, but we're out of time, BU will not gain support soon enough. There will be plenty of time to talk about BU and maybe even SW once the pressure to increase the block size has been lifted. The fog of delayed transactions will be cleared and we should be able to talk more calmly about a long-term scaling solution later.
submitted by GameKyuubi to btc [link] [comments]

Writing Project Charlie I

I know I’m required to write this down, otherwise I might be here forever. Let me apologize for any errors, confusion, nausea or vomiting, epileptic seizures, trouble sleeping, or any other side affects you may experience from reading this novel. If someone appears in your dreams claiming to be me, please notify the nearest member of the Mushroom Cult. An imposter armed with Twitter bots is on the loose. Be warned, he only has ill intentions.
Okay, here I go.
I was wandering through the woods when that gang of minion bears ambushed me. Honestly, if this whole thing is anyone’s fault, it’s those responsible for my false imprisonment, and that damn lawyer for drafting me into the labor force. Maybe then, we could have avoided the whole apocalyptic end-of-the-world situation.
But I’m getting ahead of myself.
There I was walking peacefully, lawfully, and responsibly through the woods. I don’t remember walking into any woods, and I know for a fact there are none in the area I live in. I just suddenly found myself strolling under the thick ceiling of these large pine trees. It was as if I had just woken up and started walking.
What I do remember is avidly enjoying myself in my new-found surroundings, the scent of pine was thick. There was a cool breeze that made the air comfortable. Sunlight could barely penetrate the trees, and a low fog added to the mystic of these woods. Pine needles crunched under every step I took.
I was drifting aimlessly through these woods observing the trees. I touch one of the trunks, and my eyes followed it to the top. The unusually wide branches made it impossible to see the top of the tree. It seemed to stretch on forever. I could barely see the sky. The voices in my head whispered, this place was extremely curious.
I moved past the tree, and stopped to observe a growth, not twenty feet from the base of tree I had touched.
I bent down. What was growing was a short mushroom, maybe three inches tall. It was bright red, with white spots dotting the top. It shined in the darkness of the woods, reflecting any sunlight that was strong enough to reach the ground.
It was beautiful. The voices in my head became exuberant; they all agree I should pick it up. As I went down to pluck it from the earth, just before I touched it, a sharp cry, in a language I could not understand, pierced the air.
I turned around. There were six bears. Well, at least I assumed they were bears. All of them were under three feet tall. If Chewbacca had married a midget, sorry, little person, these guys would be their children. As hilarious as they looked, they were all fully armed with swords, metal body-armor, and helmets. I froze, puzzled, meeting their gaze. What I assumed was the leader was one-step in front of the other bears with his paw extended pointing at me.
I wasn’t all that surprised by that sight. I’ve seen a lot, and I mean A LOT, of strange things. This event made more sense to me than what I’d had for breakfast that morning, which I hadn’t remembered eating.
Five second pasted in this standoff. Tension was building in the air. The leader never lowered his paw, and again bellowed that God-awful cry.
I made a face of disgust. This was obnoxious and annoying. It was really putting a damper on my whole nature/forest experience.
“Right back at you buddy.” I said, giving him the finger. I turned back down to pick up the mushroom, that I was sure was trying to give me all the answers to the universe. The moment its stem left the soil, all hell broke loose.
“AH! AH! AH! AH! AH!” chanted the bears.
As I turned back around, they charged me from a distance of thirty feet. Not once did their chant cease.
Before I had a chance to run, brace myself, or even pocket the magic mushroom, the gang of bears jumped on me. Knocking the mushroom and me to the ground, causing my head to bounce off of a tree root. That hurt, I’m pretty sure I was bleeding. The voices in my head were down for the count.
These toddler-sized furries were now crawling all over my body. One of these annoying little pricks was right in my face holding down my shoulders chanting, “AH! AH! AH! AH! AH!” Its breath fogged up my glasses. The whole time they were tying me up with a rope. I got really annoyed with the bear in my face, and started chanting back at him, “AH! AH! AH! AH! AH!” I yelled back at him much more forcefully. He scurried down my body away from my face.
Before I had even a minute to realize what was going on, the bears had me completely tied up. They left a loose end of rope at my feet so they could drag me.
The leader started speaking gibberish in a very authoritative tone. The persistent chanting stopped. He was now barking orders at his subordinates, who quickly jumped to action. All six bears were now dragging me over their shoulders with the leader taking the front.
Apparently, they have a chant for dragging people that is different from their attack chant.
The leader started it off, “MA! MA! MA! MA! MA!” The rest of the bears followed suit in cadence. They began to pull me.
I didn’t say a word. I didn’t want to give these heathens any satisfaction for their work. I worked my hands out of the rope enough to stick both of my middle fingers up. The bears had no reaction to my gesture.
Occasionally, I would do my best to throw off their chanting rhythm. I would yell, “MA!” at instances where it wouldn’t line up with the rest of the chant. It worked a little, a couple of those savages got thrown off and confused.
I stared up at the roof of the woods. I still couldn’t see the tops of the trees and could hardly see the color of the sky. I think it was pink.
The small, hairy militia pressed on. I lost track of time, but eventually I could see the sky, it was pink. I was out of the woods. I could no longer feel pine needles drag under my back, soft grass had taken its place. The trees had disappeared.
From the ground, I hadn’t a clue where I was, or what my surroundings consisted of, but after my imprisonment, in later events, I got a lay of the land.
I had been brought into the realm ruled by the power known as the Toilet Wizard, ruler of the bears. (It is unknown to me why the Toilet Wizard is called such a thing, or why he is the ruler of the bears. It is said he is undefeated in Wii Sports Bowling, with a record of 456-0.)
The Toilet Wizard’s domain consisted of a circular clearing, surrounded by a wall of trees. The circle had a diameter of about half a mile. In the center was a hill where a small castle, about the size of a small supermarket, sat on top. It was square, with four towers in each corner. It was made of an ancient gray stone.
I of course at the time knew none of this. I just knew six armed bears, who were now dragging me up hill, had kidnapped me, which I assumed was due to the mushroom.
Once at the top of the hill, the bears stopped their chant. They had brought me to the portcullis of the castle. Which is just the gate. It was currently raised.
The bears stood me up, and in one motion, freed me of my bondage. Before I could enjoy my freedom, four new bears appeared and worked quickly to restrain my wrists behind my back. Two bears then grabbed my arms and led me inside the castle.
We immediately took a right. The ceiling was low, and the hallway was dark. The only source of light was the small ember emitted from the torches hanging on the walls.
The walk down the hallway took forever. The castle wasn’t that big, like I said before, it was about the size of a small supermarket, but we walked straight down that hallway for six hours. I remember glancing at my watch for only a second before being restrained. It had been 4:10pm when we began the walk. By the time we approached a small wooden door at the end of the hall, and I had been tossed into their dungeon, it was 10:13pm.
I had been more or less shoved into this dark, windowless room. Like the hallway, only torches hung on the walls. I was laying on my face trying to recover from being thrown into prison. Luckily, the bears had removed my restraints before locking the door with a loud bolt.
My feet ached from the walk so I sat against the stone wall. At this point I noticed I had two dungeon mates. One was obviously a knight, dressed in full chainmail armor, and had a helmet that hid his face. I thought he looked like he could’ve had a role in Monty Python and the Quest for the Holy Grail. He sat with his back against the back wall of the room.
The other prisoner was a full-grown minotaur. He was sitting down, but he looked like he was easily seven feet tall. He only wore a clump of furs and leathers held in place by a giant metal belt around his waist. His upper body was massive, rippling with muscles, like Arnold Schwarzenegger in his prime. The horns of his bull head were sharp and curved. His snout was pierced with a gold ring. He sat adjacent to the knight, his legs criss-crossed.
“What’s up?” asked the Minotaur, his voice sounded surprisingly human. He sounded like he could have easily had said to me, “Hi, welcome to Chili’s.”
“Hey” I said with a quick wave. I cracked a smile. I was hoping my time spent in this dungeon wouldn’t lack good conversation.
“I’m Dave.” said the Minotaur, pointing to himself. “That’s Groggoniche.” He pointed at the knight.
“Russ” I said pointing at myself
Groggoniche gave a casual wave, but he didn’t say anything.
“What are you in for?” asked Dave.
“Taking a walk, picking mushrooms I guess.” I said casually. “What about you?”
“Unpaid parking tickets.” Dave looked a little embarrassed, but threw his hooves up as if to imply, “What are you gonna do?”
“Bummer, what about you man?” I motioned towards Groggoniche.
“I got stopped again last night coming home from an office party. This is my fifth DUI, I’m fairly certain they’ll bathe me in fire again.” Groggoniche said this very grimly.
“It happens to the best of us.” assured Dave.
“Where you from?” asked Groggoniche.
“Dallas” I replied.
Groggoniche laughed, “Ha ha, I’m sorry.”
I was offended, and became defensive, “Why? Where are you from?”
Groggoniche chuckled again and said smoothly, “Ha ha ha not Dallas.”
“Oh.” I said flatly.
Dave, in an effort to reignite conversation, asked, “Does anyone watch Game of Thrones?”
Before I could even comment, a whole army of bears had charged the dungeon door. They were like angry ants, moving in unison.
“Oh great.” said Groggoniche, sinking his head.
The bears swarmed us. Chanting in gibberish as usual. We were all led out of the dungeon and into the hall. It was a frenzy of fast paced chanting as we were walked down the hall. This time the trip only took around thirty seconds.
We turned left and were chaperoned into a large courtroom. The light was surprisingly bright. The carpet was gray; the whole room was furnished in a polished pine, assumedly cut from the surrounding forest. The “ceiling”, if it could even be called that, had no light fixtures, it was like staring up into space. I could see stars and constellations, and I even saw a comet whip by from the far corner of the room. The entire universe seemed over-head.
The jury box consisted of bears of all sizes. Some smaller than the ones who attacked me, and some larger than grizzly bears. They roared and hissed as the three of us made our way down the aisle.
We sat at a table before the judge. A plaque posted on the front of the judge’s bench read, “THE HONORABLE TOILET WIZARD. RULER OF WEST WUSSELLWAND. CHAMPION OF WII SPORTS BOWLING.” Sitting in the seat was a short old man in a purple bathrobe, his skin pale and worn. His hair and beard were a sharp, silver, long, and unkempt. He wore wire-framed glasses that were hidden under the shade of his tall blue wizard hat. He seemed incredibly agitated with the three of us. His icy stare seemed to cut through us as we took our seats. Tension was building, and I began to sweat.
After three minutes of the silent, agitated gaze from the Toilet Wizard, and the continuous uproar of the bear jury, our lawyer appeared.
The doors swung open dramatically, making a loud banging noise. A middle-aged man, wearing a navy-blue wetsuit, began power walking down the aisle to where the three of us sat.
“I’m so sorry your Honor” began the man, “those damned school kids held me up again.”
The Toilet Wizard let out an impatient huff. He was not at all amused with me, Dave, Groggoniche, or this estranged man who was late because he was being mugged by schoolchildren.
Our lawyer opened his palm towards the Toilet Wizard, fingers extended, “Five minutes, please! Let me council my clients.”
The Toilet Wizard motioned his hand forward, looked up annoyed, he hated being there.
The man shook each one of our hands, he seemed to be in a hurry. “How ya doing boys, I’m here to get you out of this. All you boys have to do is follow my lead; no one is going to get eaten by the Pit Lizard on my watch!”
“What?” exclaimed Dave. Panic flashed across his bull shaped face. He was trembling. Groggoniche dropped his head at this talk of the Pit Lizard.
“Hey!” yelled back our lawyer. “Don’t you worry; you’re all going to be just fine!” He pulled out three cards, and handed us each one. “I’m a professional!”
I looked at the card. It read, “Richard Waterpants, Attorney at Law. Specializing in Pit Lizard Defense.” I had no idea what a Pit Lizard was, but based on the looks of Dave and Groggoniche, I really hoped that Attorney Waterpants knew his stuff.
“Everything we need to get you out of this is in this briefcase.” Attorney Waterpants slammed a briefcase, that I had not noticed he was carrying, onto the table. “By the end of this, all four of us will be drinking Pomegranate La Croix on the beaches of the Magenta Sea.” He seemed extremely confidant, which lifted my spirits, and ended my sweat.
“Why are we all being charged together? What am I being charged for?” I demanded to know.
Our lawyer chuckled, “Yeah, right, like you don’t know. All I can say is I’m really glad I’m not you.” He slapped me on the back. “All three of you are being tried together because it’s the end of the year. The Toilet Wizard is trying to get everyone through the system. It’s either get tried together, or run out of time and face the Pit Lizard without trial.” He pointed at me authoritatively, “They’re doing you a favor pal.”
The Toilet Wizard spoke in a language I could not understand. His face red, we had obviously exceeded his patience.
“What is he saying?” I whispered to my attorney.
Waterpants’ face turned white, “You can’t understand him? Oh Christ!”
He reached into his pocket and pulled out something wrapped in cling-wrap.
He quickly unwrapped the plastic. What was inside was absolutely horrid. It appeared to be a PB and J sandwich, only it was green, dotted with mold, and it reeked of what smelled like gasoline. As I opened my mouth to ask questions, Waterpants shoved the whole thing into my mouth, and made me chew it.
I nearly puked, but I managed to swallow it. The room began to spin; the voices in my head were in a panic. I was sure I was going to fall out of my chair. I grabbed the edge of the table to keep myself grounded.
After about thirty seconds of this misery, the room began to focus. The voices silenced. I could hear the jury. They no longer spoke their gibberish language, “FEED THEM TO THE PIT LIZARD!” they cried.
The Toilet Wizard banged his gavel, “Enough of this delay! The Pit Lizard grows hungry!” The jury box cheered at this statement.
“Your Honor,” began Waterpants, “my clients are being held on charges that should be considered criminal!”
“They are criminals!” yelled the Toilet Wizard. “The knight is being charged with his fifth DUI this year!”
Groggoniche crossed his arms and shrugged.
“The Minotaur hasn’t paid a single parking ticket since 2005!” The Toilet Wizard pointed his gavel at Dave.
Dave looked embarrassed. The Toilet Wizard then turned his attention towards me.
“And you!” his angry gaze was sharp and pierced my soul, “You stand accused by the World Window of bringing eminent destruction to the entire Realm of Wussellwand!” There was an uproar from the jury following this statement. I hadn’t a clue to what I had just been accused of.
“My client is completely ignorant of this accusation!” Waterpants sprang quick to my defense. “He was found wandering in the woods, causing no harm or destruction!”
“Trespassing! He was trespassing! Not only that, but on my domain!” The Toilet Wizard was fuming. “Regardless of his current or past intentions, the World Window has spoken! To question the World Window is a crime punishable by Pit Lizard as well!” The Toilet Wizard bent down behind the bench, and emerged with a computer monitor. Silence fell within the court.
He faced the monitor towards the court, and slowly, Windows 95 began to boot up on the screen. After a long pause, that seemed to last an eternity, a desktop with a background picture of the Toilet Wizard in sunglasses on a beach appeared. There was only one icon on the screen. A word document.
The Toilet Wizard clicked on the document file. The file opened a page with a single line, typed in comic sans, number twelve font, “Russ Jackson will cause the apocalypse ;)” I was wildly confused. The jury gasped. My lawyer turned white.
“Indisputable evidence!” the Toilet Wizard swung his arm back and forth punctuating each word. “What say you?” The Toilet Wizard slammed his hands a top the bench, red with rage.
“One last piece of evidence, your Honor!” Waterpants was sweating as he faced the briefcase to open towards the Toilet Wizard. He flicked open the case. The only thing inside was a crumbled-up piece of paper with “Lol No he didn’t” written in sharpie.
There was a roar of fury from the jury; they simply could not cope with this somehow groundbreaking evidence. My lawyer smiled weakly at the Toilet Wizard.
The Toilet Wizard snarled his face in disgust. “And where did this so called ‘evidence’(He used air quotes around “evidence”) come from?”
“From the high prophet Bernicus, leader of the Mushroom Cult, reigning world champion of Rock Band.” Waterpants seemed desperate.
“Bernicus” pondered the Toilet Wizard, leaning back in his chair, “these are his words?”
“Yes!” cried Waterpants. “Upon the trespass arrival of the human” he pointed towards me, “the prophecy was declared.”
“The World Window and Bernicus conflict!” announced the Toilet Wizard, spreading his arms wide. “There is much to be considered! I must ponder this!” the Toilet Wizard closed his eyes and began to rub his temples. Silence once again fell upon the court.
After ten minutes of silence and self-reflection, the Toilet Wizard sprang to life. “Labor!” declared the Toilet Wizard. “The human, among these two other heathens, will not be fed to the Pit Lizard!” The jury let out a very disappointed cry. “Fret not!” cried the Toilet Wizard, “the human, the knight, and the minotaur, will all work within the southern BitCoin mines for the next one-hundred years! Death will not come to any of them! Hard labor will prevent them from any wrong doings!”
“Yes!” said our lawyer, putting his fist in the air in victory. As long as we weren’t fed to the Pit Lizard he considered it a win. “Pleasure serving you boys and good luck!” he shook each one of our hands again, grabbed his briefcase, and sprinted out of the courtroom, with his flippers slapping the ground.
Dave and Groggoniche look sick. They were not as thrilled by the verdict as Waterpants was. Groggoniche sank his head, Dave looked like he was going to be sick. I was sweating again.
“The chances we survive the first week of working the mines are slim, I’d feel better taking my chances with the Pit Lizard.” said Dave.
Groggoniche let out a sigh, “Man I really wish they’d just peel my skin off, like they promised to do last time.”
“Rise!” demanded the Toilet Wizard, pointing at us. We all stood to attention. A gang of bears entered the court. “Take these workers to the Southern Stop! Issue them chariots to aid in their journey!” The bears seized us, and we were taken out of the court.
Although I knew I could understand the bears, they said nothing as we walked down the dark hall into an even darker room. The room was pitch black. I had no idea how big the room actually was.
A bear flipped on a light switch, a spotlight shone in the center of the room. Three BMX bikes were sitting under the light.
“Chariots” said one of the bears pointing towards the bikes. Another bear approached us with a piece of paper in his hand. He gave it to Groggoniche.
“Map” said the bear tapping the paper in Groggoniche’s hand.
The “map” was a crudely drawn on notebook paper. There was a circle with a square in the center, which I assumed represented the Toilet Wizard’s domain. A line drawn in red marker snaked from the drawn square, to the lower right corner of the paper.
“Wait here.” said one final bear, pointing to the end of the red line, punctuated with an X. The bears then pushed us towards the bikes. Another bear hit a button on the wall that I had not previously seen, a garage door opened to the outside world.
In the distance, the trees stretched towards the sky, which was now blue. The grass was green and lush. We all mounted the bikes. I got the black one. I was thoroughly confused, but the voices in my head were calm.
“Go.” said the bears, pointing outside. Groggoniche peddled first, taking off down the hill. Dave and I were in close pursuit.
The sun was warm, and its rays highlighted the colors around us. The clouds above us rolled off into the distance. Our bikes rolled smoothly through the clearing. We neared the tree line and I watched Groggoniche disappear into the darkness of the woods. I followed closely behind along with Dave.
The darkness of the woods encompassed us. The ride became bumpy as we traversed roots and over growth. Groggoniche was gaining distance. Apparently, the knight was extremely skilled on a BMX bike. I did my best to keep up with him. Dave was struggling too. I could hear his breath become heavy as his powerful Minotaur legs peddled along.
After what felt like many hours, we reached a small clearing. Groggoniche stopped and let his bike fall to the ground. I was seconds behind him, and Dave soon followed. I was exhausted, struggling to catch my breath, sweat made my t-shirt stick to my skin, my glasses were fogging up from the heat radiating off my face.
“Where are we?” I asked. I looked around; the clearing wasn’t a perfect circle like the Toilet Wizard’s domain. It was an irregular shape. The trees made the area almost claustrophobic. The grass was just as green and as lush as the grass that grew near the castle. There was nothing here.
“Is this where the BitCoin mine is?” I asked confused, looking around.
“What? No.” said Groggoniche. “This is the bus stop that takes us there.”
“What bus stop?” I asked, I couldn’t see anything but grass and trees.
“The one right there.” Dave pointed behind me. I turned around. A red bench resting on concrete sat on the edge of the clearing, the sunlight seemed to reflect off it.
“We have to take a bus there?” I was puzzled. “What’s to stop us from taking these bikes somewhere else?” I gestured towards the bikes. They had disappeared.
“They’ve returned home.” said Groggoniche. “Besides, we’re still in the domain of the Toilet Wizard; he knows every move we make.” He pointed towards the trees. “They speak to him.” The wind blew, and the branches of each tree shook.
I shuddered at this. “What now?” I asked.
“We sit and wait.” said Dave. He and Groggoniche walked towards the red bench. I followed cautiously behind. The three of us crammed into the bench, it was a tight fit, but we were all seated. I was sandwiched in the middle.
Time slowed down. I stared up to the sky. The clouds were creeping at a slow pace above. The blue of the sky was slowly turning pink. I could see the planet Saturn become more and more visible.
The voices in my head were making inaudible whispers. I was tired from the trial and the journey. The world began to spin and I felt myself slowly drift to sleep. It felt as if a warm blanket had been wrapped around me. I was felt so serene.
As my eyelids dropped, Dave clapped in my face. “No!” he yelled at me. All sleepiness left my body. “Don’t fall asleep! You can’t live with the consequences!”
“What?” I couldn’t piece together what he was saying.
“He’s right.” said Groggoniche. I looked over at him he was leaning back, puffing on an e-cigarette through the holes on his helmet. He casually looked off in the distance.
“What flavor is that?” I pointed at his e-cig.
He turned his head towards me without saying a word and threw it over his shoulder. Before it hit the ground, it exploded with a loud crack!
“What the —” but before I could finish my sentence, our bus appeared.
submitted by Jackson12B to stories [link] [comments]

Delusions of guilt/sin?

I've read about delusions of guilt involving people who believe they were directly responsible for causing natural disasters and stuff, but can extreme, severe, unwarranted guilt also count as a delusion? I can honestly say that extreme guilt is starting to ruin my life. I wrote a post on /OCD a month ago describing some of the upsetting thoughts I have, but I didn't get too deep into things. It sounds so terribly narcissistic (which makes no sense because my self esteem is very low and I deal with a lot of self-hatred), but I've been grappling lately with feeling somehow responsible (or at least partially-responsible) for some of the bad things going on in the world. Because I was praised a lot growing up for being a bright kid, I guess I have this feeling that it's my responsibility and duty to do great things, and that I could "fix" (or at least greatly contribute to fixing) many of the great problems in the world if I just applied myself, but because I'm such a lazy/bad/selfish person I'm not applying myself properly and therefore I'm depriving the world of my potential. I know it sounds fucked up. I just feel this huge weight of responsibility on my shoulders, and I feel like the standards I hold myself to compared to other people are irrational. But I can't shake these feelings.
The guilt I feel is all consuming. It affects me every day. The holidays this year were particularly hard, I spent every night during the week leading up to Christmas crying myself to sleep because the guilt was so intense. My social relationships are affected by it. It doesn't matter how well a social interaction goes, because I'll always walk away feeling this absolutely crushing guilt. I recently saw an old friend, we went on a walk together and afterwards she hugged me and said she wanted to have me over for dinner but had to check with her husband. I left feeling like the most awful friend and person. I started to go down the rabbit hole of convincing myself that she'll never want to see me again, and surely enough we ended up planning that dinner later in the week, and I was honestly surprised that I turned out to be wrong. My social anxiety worsens significantly the more I get to know someone, partially because of the fear that they're going to somehow wrong me or are lying to me/deceiving me, partially because close relationships stir up so much guilt inside of me that I can't take it. It doesn't matter if people are laughing at my jokes, smile when they see me, tell me they like me. Nothing stops these feelings. I always walk away feeling like the guilt is burning a hole in my stomach. I feel like I'm deceiving people of my true nature. I feel guilty if I make dinner and feel like I didn't give everyone equal portions. I feel like a horrible daughter even though my mother expresses her appreciation for me all the time. I feel guilty for not being open enough. Horribly, horribly guilty any time I slip up with anything social (like if I engage in a bit of gossip or say something negative about a friend I'm having trouble with to someone). A few weeks ago I agonized for days over wasting $10, and it wasn't even my money, it was my parents money. My family either jokes that I should buy myself a whip, or they get angry and annoyed at me for being so ridiculous, so now I just hide these feelings.
I constantly feel like I'm either on the verge of punishment or deserve to be punished for being such a "bad" person, even though I can't rationally explain what's so bad about me. I'm not religious but the closest analogy I can think of is that I feel like a constant sinner. I feel like I don't deserve good things, I feel terrible when good things happen to me, and I'm always waiting for the people in my life to drop me, no matter what evidence I have to the contrary. As a disclaimer, I have dealt with paranoia in the past. About two years ago I went through a stint lasting 6 months to 1 year where I thought cameras were hidden in my house. Since I took a lot of psych classes in college around that time I maintained pretty good insight into these thoughts, but they did start to affect my behavior, because a part of me did believe them even though another part of me didn't, and the two parts were fighting with each other and causing me a lot of confusion and cognitive dissonance. During that time I dealt with serious social withdrawal, apathy, and various "brain fog" issues (loss of motivation, extreme trouble concentrating and focusing) that have gotten somewhat better with time, although I still don't feel like I've gotten back to where I was before all of this started. I've been left with some quirks, mostly surrounding fears relating to thievery and surveillance (covering cameras on every device I own, hiding my laptop whenever I leave the house even if it's for a five minute walk, putting a lock on my backpack so someone won't steal my stuff while I'm walking, avoiding all social media, paying for stuff with bitcoin, lots of complex cyber security stuff, and occasionally getting the creeping feeling that there are a set of eyes on me, such as when I'm lying in bed since my bed is near a window). I've had depression for many years, since I was a young teen I'd say, and I think I'm going through a pretty major depressive episode right now. I find myself having with suicidal thoughts, which hasn't really happened since maybe 9-10 months ago. I read about people with depression and the guilt they experience, but I have a hard time relating because I don't see any stories about depressed people who have this level of all-encompassing guilt. I've always been a guilty person, but it's gotten significantly worse during these last few months I'd say. I haven't seen a therapist because I always convince myself at the last minute that there's nothing serious going on (or else how would I be able to even articulate these experiences?)
submitted by throwawy7456 to schizophrenia [link] [comments]

[Thursday, March 15 2018] A short-ish history of new features on Reddit; Nova Scotia becomes 1st Canadian province to ban cat declawing; WEST MIAMI-DADE - FIU pedestrian bridge collapses, people trapped underneath; Sheriff who pocketed $750K from inmate food fund bought beach house for $740K





  • jediyoshi
    [Title Post] Sheriff who pocketed $750K from inmate food fund bought beach house for $740K
    Comments || Link



  • CuriosityStream
    Stephen Hawking helped us create this show and today we’re releasing it for free. No paywall, ads or email address required to stream the series.
    Comments || Link


  • mvea
    Stephen Hawking's final Reddit post was an ominous warning about the future of humanity and capitalism: “The trend seems to be toward the second option, with technology driving ever-increasing inequality”
    Comments || Link


  • kotobukisushiocala
    Florida citrus department's head of IT arrested for using all the govt. agency's resources to mine for bitcoin
    Comments || Link
  • been_zhak_unt
    Can we fix it? The repair cafes waging war on throwaway culture. When fixing items is actively discouraged by manufacturers, recycling becomes a political act, say Repair Cafe volunteers
    Comments || Link


  • beermom
    Reddit, what is something that you can't believe is actually a REAL thing?


  • HalabjaJustice
    We are chemical weapons attack survivors. Now, we are trying to hold corporations accountable for their role in the attack. Ask us anything.




  • CantYandleTheHeat
    New York Ranger’s Pavel Buchnevich makes a kid with his old KHL jersey cry by giving him a stick and taking a picture with him
    Comments || Link





  • penmanshipperooski
    Dude on the left declined his Prom King award so the runner-up (my dad) could get paired up with the Queen (his crush). OldSchoolConsiderate (1971)
    Comments || Link
  • IntelWarrior
    Women's Pro-Wrestling Pioneer Mildred Burke: In the 1930s, Burke wrestled over 200 men, but only lost to one of them.
    Comments || Link








  • OnemanShowIA
    Hard for me NOT to see Minas Tirith in this one. 3rd day of The Routeburn Track in New Zealand back in January. [OC] [2048x1536]
    Comments || Link
  • nathanielthewise
    Fall in the North Cascades. No bugs, no people, ripe huckleberries.. doesn't get much better. [OC] [3200 x 4000]
    Comments || Link



  • R4b6it
    Cointe Observatory, built by the University of Liège in 1881-82
    Comments || Link


  • GoodGriefWhatsNext
    Princess Elizabeth, in peasant blouse and cotton skirt, and her husband, Prince Philip, in checkered shirt and blue jeans, enjoy an old-fashioned hoedown at a private party in Ottawa, Canada, October 11, 1951 [1213 x 997]
    Comments || Link



    While river otters usually mate for life, sea otters are polygamous, and their mating ritual is so rough that it was found responsible for 11% of all fresh southern sea otters deaths from 2000 to 2003.
    Comments || Link

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is...


Its top 3 all time posts
submitted by kaunis to tldr [link] [comments]

The Freedom of Money

In the course of a civilization's history, it becomes increasingly apparent that there is no ultimate authority, save for the consensus of a species and the mathematical laws of reality.
This was the intention of the United States and democracy: the absolving of rule because "I am more special".
This was the great idea that changed history hundreds of years ago. No human had the right to rule another merely because they felt ordained by a higher power, but humans must consent to being ruled; they are not obligated by it.
This beautiful enlightenment has occasionally manifested itself throughout the history of our civilization, clearing the fog of our cosmic infancy one paradigm at a time.
As we first acquired sentience, it occurred to us in a moment of brilliance "I have the freedom to build and create things". The actual thought was probably less elegant and resided primarily in the subconscious, but that was nevertheless the underlying theme.
Another brave soul lifted his eyes once more towards the stars and thought a truly rebellious thought. "I have the right to believe whatever I want about the universe. Why should another man dictate what God I worship?"
We, as a species, were slowly growing to understand both ourselves and our universe. The universe is a brutal machine that smashes and crushes matter together in cataclysmic ways, and when it spawned life, it did so in a heinous fashion: organisms consuming other organisms for energy while dominating the weaker members of their kind.
Scarcity, competition, and selective destruction led to our current apex as the only known region of the universe that has actually grown complex enough to consider itself.
And now all the locked doors of reality are flinging open in front of us, one by one.
Men and women should be free.
A representative democracy is the best solution for government because though human beings have different capacities and dispositions for rule, all should have a say in their destiny. Order is more conductive to a species than chaos, though many of us lack the wisdom and knowledge necessary for effective rule. I do not propose that any form of current government is perfect, but we are always striving to improve and find the best solution for our current trajectory.
Every step we make, another door opens to us.
As the average intelligence, ability, and resources of each human grows, it becomes obvious to that individual that they should have certain freedoms.
And the only bounds they might encounter, aside from purely physical ones, are only those that other humans place upon them.
But that's the key: the physical bounds of our species are crumbling. As we climb the ladder of cosmic ascension, we are capable of ever more, and the impossible transitions steadily into the obvious.

Freedoms Throughout History

There was a time when religious freedom did not make sense.
The average human believed that the sun was a powerful monster in the sky and for any order, a very wise person had to invent a story to control the masses. In this way society could continue.
There was a time when it made sense to restrict the diet or the sexual expression of the commoners. After all, when eating unrefrigerated meat from a pig can kill you, we need to prevent the members of our society from killing themselves in any way possible. We can't afford to lose our greatest architect because he has a taste for ham.
I am not defending the cruel and wicked methods used throughout the eons to defend these restrictions, only arguing that from a purely developmental standpoint they made logical sense. The technology wasn't there to support those freedoms yet.
But as the average member of society becomes more enlightened, and our technical abilities as a collective expand, we don't need those restrictions any longer. In fact, those same restrictions on liberty become encumbering and have the opposite effect than their intent: they stifle and crush the progress of civilization.
There came a time of technological, emotional, and physical maturity for all these freedoms:
... and now, money.
There was a time when it made sense to enforce the rule that only a designated entity could issue money because we lacked the technological and social ability to regulate that ourselves. Just like the men who would have eaten rotten meat if someone hadn't stopped them, we would have counterfeited and regionalized our currency to death if a central authority hadn't mandated that we obey certain restrictions.
But that isn't true anymore. Finally, after so many thousands of years of recorded history, we have reached a milestone in our civilization where the freedom of money is no longer a threat.
This is a new era. This is the dawn of a new day where humans realize that it makes no sense that they aren't allowed to transfer value to someone around the world without the consent of other men.

Bitcoin: The Freedom of Money

There is only one restriction on what other humans value, and that is the consensus on what we value. This notion of 'value' arises through a set of criteria that once led us to value gold as a species, but now we have something better: bitcoin.
And it will be bitcoin, or none. Why? Because the entire notion of cryptocurrency and the freedom of money hinges on the entire species valuing one standard. The question of "what about bitcoin 2.0" is as absurd as "what about gold 2.0". The results will be the same: yes, there were other precious metals with worldwide impact, but none displaced gold as the global standard.
The members of a society must value an asset in order for it to make a useful exchange of value, and because bitcoin is the representative currency in the spectrum of crypto, we either eventually agree to value bitcoin at the same rate that we value the entire worth of our species or we forfeit the freedom of money until the opportunity arises again.
We are passed the point of no return and the rest of this mathematical equation should be obvious to the enlightened:
Bitcoin wins. The Age of the Freedom of Money has arrived.
Once you grant a civilization a freedom, you will fight a long and steep slope to take it back (should that even be possible). You can't take back the right to freedom of religion, representation in government, sexuality, information, or money without expending an absurd amount of resources. The process is akin to preventing fusion in a star itself.
Soon other forms of "freedom" will echo through the boughs of our rapidly ascending civilization, but first we will have to come to terms with the concept of freedom of money.
For now we will need other men to dictate restrictions to us on such concepts as freedom of travel, freedom of enterprise, and freedom of effort because we haven't reached a technological and social level where those are valid propositions. But their time will come as well.
But for now, rejoice that you are privy to a realization that the rest haven't had the luxury of yet: Bitcoin will become the cornerstone of all money on the planet, and though alternative cryptocurrencies may also retain long term value, none can mathematically displace the original blockchain.
If you are reading this, in 2015, you are one of the lucky ones.
Don't waste your headstart on the rest of the species.
submitted by americanpegasus to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How is Tezos dealing with anonymity?

Bitcoin is not very anonymous because transactions can be tracked from exchanges, as well as to and from wallets, all from the public block chain. This can be pragmatic for those who don't want their names tied to their wallet addresses. I've heard of bitcoin scramblers, which fog your identity, but even then you are not untraceable.
Is Tezos going to have a solution for this issue?
submitted by tmp400 to tezos [link] [comments]

Back to 2008: The origin of the blockchain, where the dream begins

Back to 2008: The origin of the blockchain, where the dream begins
[My great achievements shall be cast on bronze, carved on marble and engraved on wooden boards forever. When these deeds are circulated in the world, the age of happiness also come.
Cervantes Don Quixote]
On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the birth of this bitcoin, I sent this sentence to Satoshi Nakamoto, paying tribute to this great era.
The clock goes back to 2008, and the world is struggling with the worst global economic recession in half a century. This extraordinary shock has caused serious trade shackles and led to the collapse of several large financial institutions. Due to the global integration and the development of various well-designed financial products, the world financial system has expanded into an interdependent, closely-knit ecosystem. The crisis has developed like a fire, and central banks and policy makers seem to be unable to do anything.
The crisis was caused by policy makers. In order to stimulate the economy, governments implemented loose monetary policies and deficit finances to stimulate residents to increase leverage and excessive consumption. Financial institutions also ignored high-risk operations and created asset price bubbles. Policy makers and supervisory authorities disregard risks, subjectively causing the lack of financial supervision and laxity; financial institutions intensified and amplified risks in order to pursue short-term interests.
Film The Big Short is drawn from the global financial crisis in 2008
The irony and helpless thing are that global policy makers tried to quickly start the economic recovery after the financial crisis, and all countries entered the era of monetary easing, and the currency issued by most countries in the world far exceeded the historical average. In this unprecedented campaign of printing money, global asset prices started a new round of skyrocketing, causing severe inflation and overcapacity. So far, it has not been cleared, and it has become an unsuccessful shackle that has kidnapped economic policies.
No one is satisfied with such a robbery policy with money in the bank enduring the actual negative interest rate exploitation. Who wants to see that money earned by his hard work is diluted by inflation? It's time to change the rules of the game and make some new attempts. FMZ
The popularization and application of computer technology and modern communication technology is the fifth information technology revolution defined in the book. It has promoted human society into the digital information age, which has brought about tremendous changes in our production and life style. We benefit from this, chatting, reading, playing, shopping, socializing, completing work and life on the Internet, killing boring and lonely time. Some excellent and great companies were born, as well as some opportunistic generations.
Those who are accustomed to the network, in the harsh content review and speech control environment, are familiar with the 404 page, which is the characteristic daily page under the authority system. An HTTP 404 error is a page that the server returns if it cannot provide information properly or cannot respond not knowing the reason when a client browsing a web page. The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the most widely used network protocol on the Internet. All WWW files must comply with this standard. Although the TCP/IP protocol is the most popular application on the Internet, the HTTP protocol does not stipulate that it must be used and based on the layers it supports. In fact, HTTP can be implemented on any other Internet protocol, or on other networks.
Take a closer look at the HTTP status code, not far from “404 Not Found”. We can find the “402 Payment Required” that is rarely seen is described as "for later use" and is marked as "need to pay" to access. In fact, at the beginning of network design, creators hope to provide a way to transfer value. Different from the free sharing of information, it is not an easy task to exchange value freely on the Internet. Value is not data that can be “copied and pasted”. This dream can only be shelved indefinitely, and it is marked as "for later use". The problem is left to those who have enough wisdom to solve. FMZ
The seeds of the cryptocurrency have been planted early. In the 1980s, cypherpunk had the original idea of ​​cryptocurrency. Some people dream of building a market full of government secrets, and those who leak news can get untrackable electronic cryptocurrency rewards. The difficulty in designing rewards is how to build a consensus that everyone recognizes, namely the Byzantine Generals Problem, which was proposed by Leslie Lamport et al in 1985 – let the local forces reach a consensus and decide whether to send troops. Extending to the computing field, establishe a fault-tolerant distributed system. Even if some nodes fail, it can ensure the normal operation of the system. It can allow multiple nodes based on zero trust to reach consensus and ensure the consistency of information transmission.
I have to admit that the earth-shattering history is sometimes made by a small number of people. In 1993, Eric Hughes and a group of cryptography enthusiasts created “Cypherpunk mailing list”, and he wrote in the Cypherpunk Manifesto: “We the Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems. We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money”.
In 1998, another cypherpunk, Wei Dai, proposed the anonymous, distributed electronic cryptocurrency system B-money. The idea of ​​distributed thinking has emerged as the spiritual leader of the new generation of cryptocurrency. Thought collide and surging years go by, cypherpunks diligently seeking and researching, from asymmetric encryption technology, peer-to-peer network technology, hashcash algorithm, to reusable proof of work, technology is maturing.
On November 1, 2008, a new post appeared in the " cryptography mailing list" titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". It is Satoshi Nakamoto. FMZ
“A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution.” He wrote in the Bitcoin white paper.
“The most fundamental problem with traditional currencies is trust. The central bank must be trusted to not let the currency depreciate, but historically this credibility never existed. The bank must be trusted to manage the money and let it flow in electronic money, but the bank But using money to create a credit bubble makes private wealth shrink,"
On January 3, 2009, Nakamoto published the first version of the open source Bitcoin client, announcing the birth of Bitcoin. He got 50 bitcoins by "mining" on a small server in Helsinki, Finland, and the first bitcoin block was called “Genesis block”. Nakamoto put the headline of the "Times" on that day - "The Times 03/Jan/2009, Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks" in the Genesis block, making a mockery of the monetary authorities, which will always be in the annals of history.
The bitcoin that appeared in 2009 has changed all the issues related to money, the Internet and the transfer of value. The knotty problem that plagued the network creators seems to usher in a solution. Bitcoin, which integrates P2P network, cryptography, consensus algorithm and other existing technologies, elegantly solves the problem of generating, storing and transferring exchange value on the Internet. In this system, data is generated and stored in blocks, and is chained in chronological order. Nodes that are independent of each other participate in data verification, storage, and maintenance, and are non-tamperable and transparent. specialty. Blockchain is translated into blockchain technology, which establishes a trusted mechanism for information and value transfer in untrusted networks. FMZ
Satoshi Nakamoto predicted that bitcoin would be either zero or extremely powerful in 20 years.. After the promotion and development of geeks, technical evangelists, cryptocurrency enthusiasts and even keen capital, Bitcoin that was rarely known by people at the beginning has become known to all, and its blockchain technology has spread its genes and led into a new era. For the blockchain technology, governments, big capital, technology pioneers and even the general public have gradually established consensus - after the steam engine, electricity, and the Internet, the blockchain may be the next generation of disruptive core technology, and the Internet is moving toward value Internet from information Internet.
Although the development of the Internet is changing rapidly, the breakthroughs in information dissemination and value transmission are not accidental events. From the day-to-day exploration of researchers and enthusiasts to the application feedback of ordinary users, they have to go through a long and arduous process of evolution. As technology and demand become more stable and mature, each new stage can build something new on the basis of the previous stage. Through heavy fog of thistory, looking back at the development of the information Internet, we should have sufficient psychological preparation for the construction and use of the value Internet. Although the technology is ready-made, the large-scale popularization and application can not be done overnight. If history has a reference, our optimistic expectation is totally reasonable. The application and popularity of the value Internet will radiate energy far beyond our expectations.
submitted by FmzQuant to u/FmzQuant [link] [comments]

A better environment for crypto business - the review on the legal systems in six countries

The free conduct of the cryptomarket causes confusion for the government and central banks. The market with $350 billion capitalization and no control is not that much appreciated. So the countries try to find the way to regulate cryptocurrencies. In this article we will outline some examples from the USA, Singapore, Great Britain, Switzerland, Japan and describe what happens in Russia, as well.
The USA: the infrastructure for the ready-to-run project
The legislation in the USA is complex. Every state has its own idea of cryptocurrency and Blockchain. There is still no clear definition for the cryptocurrency: some state courts acknowledge it as money and CFTC - the Commodity Futures Trading Commission - as an asset. ICO in the USA is not so popular due to the strict Securities Regulation. The government keeps a сlose eye on money-laundering and other criminal activities. The so-called “crypto clean-up” operation is in force - recently the Alabama SEC prohibited five ICO suspected foul play.
Donald Trump signed the Federal Act on Compulsory taxation for the cryptocurrency transactions two months ago. Even the one-time transaction from one customer to another is a subject to tax from now on.
But the Blockchain business running is the opposite in America: both technological projects and cryptomarkets and crypto ATMs and even hedge-funds investing in crypto are thriving in such conditions working well under the common economic law system.
The USA have good diversified and comfortable business infrastructure for the projects to run. Nevertheless, Singapore or Cayman islands are better place to issue tokens.
Singapore: the ICO support, bitcoins as goods and crypto sandbox
The Singapore jurisdiction alongside the Swiss is crypto-friendly and promising. The Singapore government openly supports ICO and many projects from all over the world come here for tokens issuance. First, they develop in MAS department for High-Tech projects (with 6 months no license running and other features). Then they come out on the open market with soft laws.
The Singapore IRS determines bitcoins and altcoins as goods and apply appropriate legislation and taxes to them. Tokens of the investment fund or any other system that distributes profits are defined as a security.
The supervisory authorities monitor the cryptocurrency preventing money laundering and financing of terrorist organizations. These are things covered by the legislation on cryptocurrency in Singapore.
To register a limited liability company in Singapore and run for a year will cost $4000 minimum. Singapore tax treatment is comfortable - for example, there is no capital gains tax. If tokens rise up in price 5 times during ICO Singapore tax men won’t show up and make the trader pay extra.
However, the laws will see further development in near future: crypto projects holding tokens as a security will feel less comfortable. Other coins will be stable in crypto-friendly Singapore.
Great Britain: pay taxes and relax
Prudish English lawmakers react on cryptocurrencies with great dignity: they pretend to ignore it. Even if the British financial legislation is reasonable and logical, and the business system in Foggy Albion is trustworthy, many cryptocurrencies still have no legal status. Great Britain is one of the countries where cryptocurrency is like a complex digital code to legislation authorities. It is like the pound sterling would be defined in the Constitution as a piece of paper of n square cm with the picture of Her Majesty. Only the tax services, who calculate taxes for cryptocompanies according to their financial statements, made an attempt of official definition for the cryptocurrency.
It is comfortable to work here: well-developed bank system, working business incubators and Blockchain friendly government. But it is better to run ICO outside the Kingdom: sooner or later their government adopt a bunch of bills on cryptocurrency exchange and who knows how it will turn out for the tokens issued in Britain.
Switzerland: Singaporish but more expensive
The Blockchain is widespread here. The cryptocurrency and ICO status is worked out in detail like nowhere else in the world and there is the Crypto Valley for projects in Canton of Zug where Ethereum, Cosmos Network and 200 more crypto companies established their HQs. Zug proposed to be the world capital of cryptocurrency. People can pay for utilities with cryptocurrencies there.
Cryptocurrency in Switzerland is defined as a security or an asset. During ICO the regulator divides the coins into three categories: cash, utility tokens and token assets. The cash is regulated by the law on illegal transactions in currency and money laundering, ICO of token assets - by the law on Securities and Stock Market.
It is easier to register the “non-profit organization” which will cover the ICO, token management functions and in addition, the technology company management due to the difficulties in Switzerland’s licensing legislation and the high-cost operations. Etherium developed that way.
Low taxes, a stable banking system, the government open to cooperate - all that makes Switzerland a comfortable place for crypto business. But the launch is pretty expensive.
Few of start-ups can afford to register and run their business in Zug: they should open the official residence, introduce the Swiss resident or citizen to the Board of Directors, open the bank account and pay the state fees. No less than $50 000 per year for all expenses.
Japan: a sharp katana of the law
In April 2017 the cryptocurrency was formally recognized as a legal way of payment. Now crypto markets are responding to the Financial Services Agency according to the law. All cryptocurrency operations are officially taxable for some years.
To open the company which makes any transaction with cryptocurrency in Japan you should reserve no less than $100 000, make an external audit and get the license for $300 000. In case of license rejection money are non-refundable.
Local regulators are not so friendly here. They close markets, adopt unpopular and strict laws. Yakuzas cry, honest samurais obey the law, and those who can afford it, quickly leave for Singapore, which is quite close, to run the ICO.
All anonymous cryptocurrencies have become illegal to use since the 18th of June. The Japan Financial Security Agency tries to give no freedom for the fraud and launched the delisting of such big companies as Monero, Dash and ZCash within the local markets.
Russia: out of the dusk into the fog
Russia was considered to be a relatively safe country for ICO because the cryptocurrency was in the grey zone regarding the law. Two years ago the Central Bank of Russia claimed the bitcoin never to be the payment method, the cryptomarkets to be the financial pyramid and warned of the risk to be cheated in fraud schemes.
Today the State Duma is trying to comprehend practice into the law, but with very limited success. There is no clear definition for the cryptocurrency in the highly discussed draft law. The requirement for mandatory personal identification involved in transactions with coins kills the idea of anonymity. People can exchange digital assets only in rubles and foreign currency but not in any other coins and open the e-wallet only via Russian provider.
There are no smart contracts and cryptocurrency fund-raising in the draft law: there is no information about transferring the cryptocurrency in tokens. The new Russian law to be signed can kill the idea of ICO in this country.
There is no law that can solve the problem of accounting and tax issues of digital assets in the country, although Russian tax authorities try their best at getting things organized and taking the profit from crypto companies.
The draft law takes the crypto business in our country out of the grey zone but gives no appropriate answer to any question occurring in trading on the crypto market.
From small Cayman islands to Cyprus, from Korea to Canada, from Chile to Germany - today we observe an interesting process of cryptocurrency and ICO legalization everywhere. We wonder what result we will see and whether the world regulatory system will be able to put everything in order on cryptomarket and make it easy-to-trade on.
The bitcoin cannot be totally forbidden, otherwise, all countries have to negotiate and develop a common regulatory paper. There was no evidence of such unity since the First World War. That’s why the bitcoin has put down its roots for a good long while.
submitted by Cryptorobotics to u/Cryptorobotics [link] [comments]

Intel CPUs are in TROUBLE... - YouTube BIP341 Readthrough! Taproot Segwit v1 Spending Rules - YouTube The cheap Chinese bulb that won't turn off - YouTube How bad is this $5000 PC from 10 years ago? - YouTube I Bought a TOTALED FERRARI at Salvage Auction with MYSTERY ...

A man checks receipts after buying bitcoins with naira via a Bitcoin Teller Machine in Lagos. Monthly cryptocurrency transfers to and from Africa of under $10,000 (about ¥1.06 million ... Bitcoin. $13,047.69 $ Ethereum. $415.90 $ XRP. $0.262 $ Show details. Bitcoin. Bitcoin News ... users can decide whether they run the Gateway on the device or at a Fog level. On devices with little capabilities, it will always be best to run the Streams Gateway at a Fog or Cloud level. IOTA Ecosystem Expanding Rapidly. The IOTA ecosystem has continued to expand rapidly with the blockchain ... A lot of work has a clear focus on anonymity issues [11], [12], [18], ... While Bitcoin Fog and Blockchain.info successfully anonymize our test transactions, we can link the input and output ... Approach 1: transactions with known tumbling service providers (such as Coin Fog). Approach 2: transactions in which a user sends bitcoin to another user (potential tumbler) and that user sends the bitcoin back (in one or several transactions), less a tumbling fee of between 0 to 10 % within 10 blocks. Approach 3: transactions with users that display the characteristics of tumbling service ... Bitcoin Fog released this statement (probably a load of shit) "Recently we have been receiving a lot of reports from users that claim that their accountshave been stolen. Between weak password, phishing websites, inability to send e-mails or other means of identifying users,there are a lot issues with restoring passwords. To improve the situation we have now implemented PGP authentication.If ...

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Intel CPUs are in TROUBLE... - YouTube

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