Bitcoin (BTC) Mining Profit Calculator - WhatToMine

With the pretty awesome rise of almost all crypto currencies, it's time to restart our machines and mine the most profitable coin today 30.01.2020!!!

So let's talk about the GPUs to start with, the ranking has radically changed and even those that were running at a loss have become profitable again The top 10 chart:
1.NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti 4.60 Mh/s 220W $1.35 $0.55 Zcoin(XZC) MTP Algo
2.NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 4.00 Mh/s 190W $1.17 $0.48 Zcoin(XZC) MTP
3.AMD Radeon VII 78.00 Mh/s 230W $1.22 $0.39 EthereumClassic(ETC) Ethash Algo
4.NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti 3.60 Mh/s 190W $1.05 $0.37 Zcoin(XZC) MTP
5.AMD Radeon RX 5700 XT 51.50 Mh/s 140W $0.81 $0.30 EthereumClassic(ETC) Ethash
6.NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 2.60 Mh/s 130W $0.76 $0.29 Zcoin(XZC)MTP
7.NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 2.80 Mh/s 150W $0.82 $0.28 Zcoin(XZC) MTP
8.NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 2.80 Mh/s 150W $0.82 $0.28 Zcoin(XZC) MTP
9.NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti 2.50 Mh/s 130W $0.73 $0.26 Zcoin(XZC) MTP
10.NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti 2.00 Mh/s 100W $0.59 $0.22 Zcoin(XZC)
Now let's go to the asic Top 10:
  1. Innosilicon A10 ETHMaster 500.00 Mh/s 750W Ethash $5.13 EthereumClassic(ETC) Ethash
  2. Bitmain Antminer Z11 135.00 kh/s 1418W Equihash $3.45 Pirate(ARRR)
  3. BlackMiner F1+ 22.00 Gh/s 860W Eaglesong $3.23 Nervos(CKB) FPGAminer
4.Bitmain Antminer B7 96.00 kh/s 528W Tensority $1.87
5.Bitmain Antminer S17+ 73.00 Th/s 2920W SHA-256 $1.67 BitcoinSV(BSV)
6.StrongU STU-U6 420.00 Gh/s 2100W X11 $1.52 Dash(DASH)
  1. Bitmain Antminer S17 Pro 56 Th/s 2212W SHA-256 $1.46 BitcoinSV(BSV)
  2. Bitmain Antminer S17 59.00 Th/s 2385W SHA-256 $1.34 BitcoinSV(BSV)
  3. Innosilicon A9 ZMaster 50.00 kh/s 620W Equihash $1.08 Pirate(ARRR)
  4. FusionSilicon X7 262.00 Gh/s 1300W X11 $1.03 Dash(DASH)
Dont forget you can find around new Firmware for example for Z9/Z11 Efudd Firmware,and Hive OS firmwares which can Overclock S9/S15/S17 or Underclock (if your electriciy fee are too expensive), for example my S17 Pro I switched to new firmware (Hive OS) to 36Th/s with 900 Watts power gives me a 2.90 usd/day profit without electricity of course, for Z11 Overclocking without changing PSU from 135 to 150-160Ko/sol.
I calculated everything on the basis of 0.15 cens Kw / h.
Brand New Miner coming out:
ASICminer Zeon Turbo 400,000 Sol/s Equihash
Most Profitable Miner in the World. ASICminer Daily Revenue: $27 $16 (less 0.15 Kw/h fee) ASICminer Power Consumption: 2500W
asicminer dot co/shop (Factory)
submitted by pushingworld77 to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

[Hopefully] Extensive Genesis Mining Math - Looking at network difficulty: -38.6% terminal ROI (yes that's a negative)

I recently got into an argument with someone spewing referral links and touting Genesis (and BitConnect, smh) so I decided to run the numbers the best I could for his situation.
tl;dr You will have a return of investment of -38.6% (yes, negative) before your contract is cancelled because of increased network difficulty.
The Numbers
I started w/ 16.5 TH/s because that is how much the other person said he had. At today's rates, it costs $2,175 to buy 16.5TH/s. Maintenance rate is $0.00028/GHs, so maintenance fee is $4.62 fee per day or $0.1925/hr. I inputted this CoinWarz calculator w/ the $2,175 as the hardware costs, I used power and power costs of 192.5 Watts and $0.001/Wh, which equals the same $0.1925/hr maintenance fee
Initial (read: the one Genesis wants you to look at but is actually misleading) verdict: 228 days to break even. NOTE: this is really important because some people seem to forget this. An investment in Genesis cannot be withdrawn. It's money gone. So after 228 days you haven't doubled your money or even earned $2,175, you have $0. You spent $2,175 and then you got it back. $0 total.
Now, stepping it up, I introduce the effect of network difficulty. From my methodology, we assume that the difficulty doubles every six months. That means that you're making (after maintenance fee) the full $9.54/day on day one, but at month six it's $2.46. Wait a minute, that's not half!! I made this mistake too! Of the initial $9.54, you're earning $14.16 but paying a maintenance fee of $4.62 - so after network difficulty doubles you earn $7.08/day but still have to pay the same $4.62 maintenance fee (your Gemini contract includes nothing about them ever having to provide a better maintenance fee ever).
The network difficulty continues to increase and around the 9 month mark (to be precise, once network difficulty increases 3.065 times or day 280 of your contract) you're earning $4.62/day and your maintenance fee is $4.62 and imminently your contract is cancelled. You've hit the end of the road.
Based on the virtues of linearity, if you're earning $9.54/day on day 1 and $0/day on day $280. Thus you're earning an average $4.77/day over 280 days for a total of $1,335.60, which is a net loss of $839.40 or a return of -38.6% on your initial $2,175.
You will not make money with Genesis. You will lose money, a lot. The only way to make money is through referral links. That makes Genesis an MLM scheme.
EDIT: formatting.
submitted by barrycl to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

How to get $100 million in VC funding to build an industry that makes $300 million profit without spending a dime

Yesterday I received an unexpected gift: a link to a copy of the slides of the presentation that 21inc gave to investors, apparently between October and December 2014, when they were still calling themselves "21E6".
(The sender asked to remain anonymous, and I am not sure about the copyright status of the file; so I would rather not repost it here yet. But it seems that several other people, including some of the 21inc competitors, have got a copy too; so anyone who is really interested can probably get it too.)
The slides don't have much new factual information, and basically confirm what we already guessed about the 21inc business plans. But they show that we severely underestimated their chutzpah and hype. Here are some random highlights (as far as I can decipher from the slides):
They had three relevant mining rig designs in the plans, that would require funding:
Codename Qty TH/s kW Cost Deploy Turnoff Profit($) --------------- ---- ---- --- ---- ------------ ----------- ----------- CyrusOne(v2), 7904 2.0 1.3 --- (already on) Apr 2015 ~23,000,000 IO(v1v3) 3250 5.2 1.3 2000 Jan 2015 Aug 2016 ~24,000,000 Brownfield(v3) 1900 5.5 1.3 2450 Mar 2015 > Nov 2017 ~20,000,000 
The "TH/s", "Cost", and "kW" columns are per "system", i.e. a mining unit containing many chips. The last column is the expected profit to be made from each set of mining hardware over its expected lifetime. (The slides have some other details that do not seem to be important.)
The first line is the hardware that they were mining with at the time of the presentation; that must be why the "Cost" (as far as investors are concerned) is given as zero.
The second line seems to be an upgrade of their previous mining hardware from v1 chips (which gave 2.7 PH/s total at the time) to v3 chips (which would give 17 PH/s) .
In reality, we have seen that their share of hashpower dwindled through all of 2015, and (AFAIK) they haven't mined a single block in the last six months. Were they still mining with CyrusOne on extra-life, or were they using the upgraded IO which was turned off prematurely? What happened to Brownfield?
However, their mining operations were secondary; the meat of their plan was the embedded chip, called BitSplit at the time.
The BitSPlit chip (as we suspected) was hard-wired to send 75% of the block reward to the 21inc wallet, whose address was burned in the silicon, and 25% to the user's wallet.
By my calculations, assuming 50 GH/s and no increase in the difficulty, the BitSplit would mine one block in 570 years, on average, and collect less than 2 BTC of reward in that time. So, of course, the chip was hard-wired to mine into a pool run by 21inc, that would spread the user's 25% of those 2 BTC (expected) into a daily regular trickle of a couple thousand satoshis. Their own mining operations would provide the BTC needed for the pool payouts of all the millions of chips that they expected to be running out there.
They projected to release 3 versions:
Model Qty GH/s W Cost Deploy Profit($) --------------- ---------- ---- -- ---- ------------ ------------ USB hub-charger 250,000 38 15 $35 Mar 2015 ~8,000,000 Embedded chip 1,000,000 63 15 $8 Aug 2015 ~103,000,000 BitSplit Inside 10,000,000 20 5 $0 Oct 2015 ~292,000,000 
The "Qty" is the expected number of units sold. The last column, IIUC, is the profit that 21inc expected to make from the 75% cut of the BTC produced by all the chips, over their expected lifetime.
In the above "USB hub-charger" model was a USB charging unit, roughly 3 x 2 x 1 inches, with 2 USB outputs and a mining chip inside, produced by 21inc themselves "to seed the market".
The second line, which I called "Embedded chip", seems to refer to discrete BitSplit chips provided by 21inc and included in consumer devices (like routers etc.) by OEM manufacturers.
The "BitSplit Inside" model would be the BitSplit integrated into the chipsets of other manufacturers, and manufactured by them. Its cost is listed as "$0" (for 21inc) because they expected those manufacturers to shoulder the cost of manufacturing and integrating the mining chip.
Apparently the market-seeding "USB hub-charger" was later replaced by the "Bitcoin Computer" (aka the PiTato). In one slide it is called "multifunctional BitSplit device", and depicted as a sleek shiny black box, the size of a cigarette pack, with a power cable and 2-3 USB or similar outputs. If that is supposed to be the PiTato, presumably they had not yet realized that a 15 w computer would need a cooling fan with a miniature wind tunnel on top.
In the last two entries, the manufacturers (not the device owners!) would be rewarded with the 25% slice of the BTC mined by those embedded chips. As an example, the slides say that a manufacturer who produced one quarter of the embedded BitSplits would get the 25% cut on the BTC yield of those chips, that was estimated to be between 2 and 4 million dollars per year of revenue in 2015--2018. Those numbers are based on the following predicted mean BTC prices: $350 for 2015, $1000 for 2016, $2200 for 2017, and $5500 for 2018.
So, their main business plan was fantastic: the OEM and chipset makers would pay the costs of producing and integrating the chips, the consumers would pay the cost of operating them, and 21inc would get 75% of all BTC mined by them, expected to be worth 400 million dollars.
It makes sense to invest 100 million in that plan, right?
EDIT1: Sentence order, typos.
EDIT2: See also this comment below about other sources of this info and this comment about a fatal flaw of the PiTato mining chip.
EDIT3: See also this comment with the data from slide 2, "At a glance"
submitted by jstolfi to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Decred Journal — May 2018

Note: New Reddit look may not highlight links. See old look here. A copy is hosted on GitHub for better reading experience. Check it out, contains photo of the month! Also on Medium


dcrd: Significant optimization in signature hash calculation, bloom filters support was removed, 2x faster startup thanks to in-memory full block index, multipeer work advancing, stronger protection against majority hashpower attacks. Additionally, code refactoring and cleanup, code and test infrastructure improvements.
In dcrd and dcrwallet developers have been experimenting with new modular dependency and versioning schemes using vgo. @orthomind is seeking feedback for his work on reproducible builds.
Decrediton: 1.2.1 bugfix release, work on SPV has started, chart additions are in progress. Further simplification of the staking process is in the pipeline (slack).
Politeia: new command line tool to interact with Politeia API, general development is ongoing. Help with testing will soon be welcome: this issue sets out a test plan, join #politeia to follow progress and participate in testing.
dcrdata: work ongoing on improved design, adding more charts and improving Insight API support.
Android: design work advancing.
Decred's own DNS seeder (dcrseeder) was released. It is written in Go and it properly supports service bit filtering, which will allow SPV nodes to find full nodes that support compact filters.
Ticket splitting service by @matheusd entered beta and demonstrated an 11-way split on mainnet. Help with testing is much appreciated, please join #ticket_splitting to participate in splits, but check this doc to learn about the risks. Reddit discussion here.
Trezor support is expected to land in their next firmware update.
Decred is now supported by Riemann, a toolbox from James Prestwich to construct transactions for many UTXO-based chains from human-readable strings.
Atomic swap with Ethereum on testnet was demonstrated at Blockspot Conference LATAM.
Two new faces were added to contributors page.
Dev activity stats for May: 238 active PRs, 195 master commits, 32,831 added and 22,280 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 4-10 developers per repository. (chart)


Hashrate: rapid growth from ~4,000 TH/s at the beginning of the month to ~15,000 at the end with new all time high of 17,949. Interesting dynamic in hashrate distribution across mining pools: share went down from 55% to 25% while F2Pool up from 2% to 44%. [Note: as of June 6, the hashrate continues to rise and has already passed 22,000 TH/s]
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 91.3 DCR (+0.8), stake participation is 46.9% (+0.8%) with 3.68 million DCR locked (+0.15). Min price was 85.56. On May 11 ticket price surged to 96.99, staying elevated for longer than usual after such a pump. Locked DCR peaked at 47.17%. jet_user on reddit suggested that the DCR for these tickets likely came from a miner with significant hashrate.
Nodes: there are 226 public listening and 405 normal nodes per Version distribution: 45% on v1.2.0 (up from 24% last month), 39% on v1.1.2, 15% on v1.1.0 and 1% running outdaded versions.


Obelisk team posted an update. Current hashrate estimate of DCR1 is 1200 GH/s at 500 W and may still change. The chips came back at 40% the speed of the simulated results, it is still unknown why. Batch 1 units may get delayed 1-2 weeks past June 30. See discussions on decred and on siacoin.
@SiaBillionaire estimated that 7940 DCR1 units were sold in Batches 1-5, while Lynmar13 shared his projections of DCR1 profitability (reddit).
A new Chinese miner for pre-order was noticed by our Telegram group. Woodpecker WB2 specs 1.5 TH/s at 1200 W, costs 15,000 CNY (~2,340 USD) and the initial 150 units are expected to ship on Aug 15. (pow8.comtranslated)
Another new miner is iBelink DSM6T: 6 TH/s at 2100 W costing $6,300 ( Shipping starts from June 5. Some concerns and links were posted in these two threads.


A new mining pool is available now: It uses PPLNS model and takes 1% fee.
Another infrastructure addition is, a newly audited stake pool with 0.8% fee. There are a total of 14 stake pools now.
Exchange integrations:
OpenBazaar released an update that allows one to trade cryptocurrencies, including DCR.
@i2Rav from i2trading is now offering two sided OTC market liquidity on DCUSD in #trading channel.
Paytomat, payments solution for point of sale and e-commerce, integrated Decred. (missed in April issue)
CoinPayments, a payment processor supporting Decred, developed an integration with @Shopify that allows connected merchants to accept cryptocurrencies in exchange for goods.


New merchants:
An update from VotoLegal:
michae2xl: Voto Legal: CEO Thiago Rondon of Appcívico, has already been contacted by 800 politicians and negotiations have started with four pre-candidates for the presidency (slack, source tweet)
Blockfolio rolled out Signal Beta with Decred in the list. Users who own or watch a coin will automatically receive updates pushed by project teams. Nice to see this Journal made it to the screenshot!
Placeholder Ventures announced that Decred is their first public investment. Their Investment Thesis is a clear and well researched overview of Decred. Among other great points it noted the less obvious benefit of not doing an ICO:
By choosing not to pre-sell coins to speculators, the financial rewards from Decred’s growth most favor those who work for the network.
Alex Evans, a cryptoeconomics researcher who recently joined Placeholder, posted his 13-page Decred Network Analysis.


@Dustorf published March–April survey results (pdf). It analyzes 166 responses and has lots of interesting data. Just an example:
"I own DECRED because I saw a YouTube video with DECRED Jesus and after seeing it I was sold."
May targeted advertising report released. Reach @timhebel for full version.
PiedPiperCoin hired our advisors.
More creative promos by @jackliv3r: Contributing, Stake Now, The Splitting, Forbidden Exchange, Atomic Swaps.
Reminder: Stakey has his own Twitter account where he tweets about his antics and pours scorn on the holders of expired tickets.
"Autonomy" coin sculpture is available at


BitConf in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Jake Yocom-Piatt presented "Decentralized Central Banking". Note the mini stakey on one of the photos. (articletranslated, photos: 1 2 album)
Wicked Crypto Meetup in Warsaw, Poland. (video, photos: 1 2)
Decred Polska Meetup in Katowice, Poland. First known Decred Cake. (photos: 1 2)
Austin Hispanic Hackers Meetup in Austin, USA.
Consensus 2018 in New York, USA. See videos in the Media section. Select photos: booth, escort, crew, moon boots, giant stakey. Many other photos and mentions were posted on Twitter. One tweet summarized Decred pretty well:
One project that stands out at #Consensus2018 is @decredproject. Not annoying. Real tech. Humble team. #BUIDL is strong with them. (@PallerJohn)
Token Summit in New York, USA. @cburniske and @jmonegro from Placeholder talked "Governance and Cryptoeconomics" and spoke highly of Decred. (twitter coverage: 1 2, video, video (from 32 min))
Campus Party in Bahia, Brazil. João Ferreira aka @girino and Gabriel @Rhama were introducing Decred, talking about governance and teaching to perform atomic swaps. (photos)
Decred was introduced to the delegates from Shanghai's Caohejing Hi-Tech Park, organized by @ybfventures.
Second Decred meetup in Hangzhou, China. (photos)
Madison Blockchain in Madison, USA. "Lots of in-depth questions. The Q&A lasted longer than the presentation!". (photo)
Blockspot Conference Latam in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (photos: 1, 2)
Upcoming events:
There is a community initiative by @vj to organize information related to events in a repository. Jump in #event_planning channel to contribute.


Decred scored B (top 3) in Weiss Ratings and A- (top 8) in Darpal Rating.
Chinese institute is developing another rating system for blockchains. First round included Decred (translated). Upon release Decred ranked 26. For context, Bitcoin ranked 13.

Community Discussions

Community stats: Twitter 39,118 (+742), Reddit 8,167 (+277), Slack 5,658 (+160). Difference is between May 5 and May 31.
Reddit highlights: transparent up/down voting on Politeia, combining LN and atomic swaps, minimum viable superorganism, the controversial debate on Decred contractor model (people wondered about true motives behind the thread), tx size and fees discussion, hard moderation case, impact of ASICs on price, another "Why Decred?" thread with another excellent pitch by solar, fee analysis showing how ticket price algorithm change was controversial with ~100x cut in miner profits, impact of ticket splitting on ticket price, recommendations on promoting Decred, security against double spends and custom voting policies.
@R3VoLuT1OneR posted a preview of a proposal from his company for Decred to offer scholarships for students.
dcrtrader gained a couple of new moderators, weekly automatic threads were reconfigured to monthly and empty threads were removed. Currently most trading talk happens on #trading and some leaks to decred. A separate trading sub offers some advantages: unlimited trading talk, broad range of allowed topics, free speech and transparent moderation, in addition to standard reddit threaded discussion, permanent history and search.
Forum: potential social attacks on Decred.
Slack: the #governance channel created last month has seen many intelligent conversations on topics including: finite attention of decision makers, why stakeholders can make good decisions (opposed to a common narrative than only developers are capable of making good decisions), proposal funding and contractor pre-qualification, Cardano and Dash treasuries, quadratic voting, equality of outcome vs equality of opportunity, and much more.
One particularly important issue being discussed is the growing number of posts arguing that on-chain governance and coin voting is bad. Just a few examples from Twitter: Decred is solving an imagined problem (decent response by @jm_buirski), we convince ourselves that we need governance and ticket price algo vote was not controversial, on-chain governance hurts node operators and it is too early for it, it robs node operators of their role, crypto risks being captured by the wealthy, it is a huge threat to the whole public blockchain space, coin holders should not own the blockchain.
Some responses were posted here and here on Twitter, as well as this article by Noah Pierau.


The month of May has seen Decred earn some much deserved attention in the markets. DCR started the month around 0.009 BTC and finished around 0.0125 with interim high of 0.0165 on Bittrex. In USD terms it started around $81 and finished around $92, temporarily rising to $118. During a period in which most altcoins suffered, Decred has performed well; rising from rank #45 to #30 on Coinmarketcap.
The addition of a much awaited KRW pair on Upbit saw the price briefly double on some exchanges. This pair opens up direct DCR to fiat trading in one of the largest cryptocurrency markets in the world.
An update from @i2Rav:
We have begun trading DCR in large volume daily. The interest around DCR has really started to grow in terms of OTC quote requests. More and more customers are asking about trading it.
Like in previous month, Decred scores high by "% down from ATH" indicator being #2 on onchainfx as of June 6.

Relevant External

David Vorick (@taek) published lots of insights into the world of ASIC manufacturing (reddit). Bitmain replied.
Bitmain released an ASIC for Equihash (archived), an algorithm thought to be somewhat ASIC-resistant 2 years ago.
Three pure PoW coins were attacked this month, one attempting to be ASIC resistant. This shows the importance of Decred's PoS layer that exerts control over miners and allows Decred to welcome ASIC miners for more PoW security without sacrificing sovereignty to them.
Upbit was raided over suspected fraud and put under investigation. Following news reported no illicit activity was found and suggested and raid was premature and damaged trust in local exchanges.
Circle, the new owner of Poloniex, announced a USD-backed stablecoin and Bitmain partnership. The plan is to make USDC available as a primary market on Poloniex. More details in the FAQ.
Poloniex announced lower trading fees.
Bittrex plans to offer USD trading pairs.
@sumiflow made good progress on correcting Decred market cap on several sites:
speaking of market cap, I got it corrected on coingecko, cryptocompare, and worldcoinindex onchainfx, livecoinwatch, and said they would update it about a month ago but haven't yet I messaged today but haven't got a response yet coinmarketcap refused to correct it until they can verify certain funds have moved from dev wallets which is most likely forever unknowable (slack)

About This Issue

Some source links point to Slack messages. Although Slack hides history older than ~5 days, you can read individual messages if you paste the message link into chat with yourself. Digging the full conversation is hard but possible. The history of all channels bridged to Matrix is saved in Matrix. Therefore it is possible to dig history in Matrix if you know the timestamp of the first message. Slack links encode the timestamp: => 1525528370 => 2018-05-05 13:52:50.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Your feedback is precious. You can post on GitHub, comment on Reddit or message us in #writers_room channel.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Richard-Red, snr01 and solar.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

So you’ve got your miner working, busy hashing away … but what is it really doing?

Posted for eternity @
Your miner is repeatedly hashing (see below for detail about a hash) a block of data, looking for a resulting output that is lower than a predetermined target. Each time this calculation is performed, one of the fields in the input data is changed, and this results in a different output. The output is not able to be determined until the work is completed – otherwise why would we bother doing the work in the first place?
Each hash takes a block header (see more below, but basically this is a 80-byte block of data). It runs this through the hashing function, and what comes out is a 32-byte output. For each, we usually represent that output in hexadecimal format, so it looks something like:
(that’s 64 hexadecimal characters – each character represents 4-bits. 64 x 4 bits = 256bit = 32 bytes)
The maximum value for our hash is:
And the lowest is:
The goal in Proof-of-Work systems is to look for a hash that is lower than a specific target, i.e. starts with a specific number of leading zeros. This target is what determines the difficulty.
As the output of the hash is indeterminate, we look to statistics and probability to estimate how much work (i.e. attempts at hashing) we need to complete to find a hash that is lower than a specific target. So, we can therefore assume that to find a hash that starts with a leading zero will take, on average, 16 hashes. To find one that will start with two leading zeros (00), we’re looking at 256 hashes. Four leading zeros (0000) will take 65,536 hashes. Eight leading zeros (00000000) takes 4,294,967,296 hashes. So on and so on, until we realize that it will take 2 ^ 256 (a number too big for me to show here) attempts at hitting our minimum hash value.
Remember – this number of hashes is just an estimate. Think of it like rolling a dice. A 16-sided dice. And then rolling it 64 times in a row. And hoping to strike a specific number of leading zeros. Sometimes it will take far less than the estimate, sometimes it will take far more. Over a long enough time period though (with our dice it may take many billions of years), the averages hold true.
Difficulty is a measure used in cryptocurrencies to simply show how much work is needed to find a specific block. A block of difficulty 1 must have a hash smaller than:
A block of difficulty 1/256 (0.00390625) must have a hash lower than:
And a block of difficulty 256 must have a hash lower than:
So the higher the difficulty, the lower the hash must be; therefore more work must be completed to find the block.
Take a recent Vertcoin block – block # 852545, difficulty 41878.60056944499. This required a hash lower than:
The achieve finding this, a single miner would need to have completed, on average 179,867,219,848,013 hashes (calculated by taking the number of hashes needed for a difficulty 1 block - 4,294,967,296 or 2 ^ 32 or 16 ^ 8 – and multiplied by the difficulty). Of course, our single miner may have found this sooner – or later – than predicted.
Cryptocurrencies alter the required difficulty on a regular basis (some like Vertcoin do it after every block, others like Bitcoin or Litecoin do it every 2016 blocks), to ensure the correct number of blocks are found per day. As the hash rate of miners increases, so does the difficulty to ensure this average time between blocks remains the same. Likewise, as hash rate decreases, the difficulty decreases.
With difficulties as high as the above example, solo-mining (mining by yourself, not in a pool) becomes a very difficult task. Assume our miner can produce 100 MH/s. Plugging in this into the numbers above, we can see it’s going to take him (on average) 1,798,673 seconds of hashing to find a hash lower than the target – that’s just short of 21 days. But, if his luck is down, it could easily take twice that long. Or, if he’s lucky, half that time.
So, assuming he hit’s the average, for his 21 days mining he has earned 25 VTC.
Lets take another look at the same miner, but this time he’s going to join a pool, where he is working with a stack of other miners looking for that elusive hash. Assume the pool he has joined does 50 GH/s – in that case he has 0.1 / 50 or 0.2% of the pool’s hash rate. So for any blocks the pool finds he should earn 0.2% of 25 VTC = 0.05 VTC. At 50 GH/s, the pool should expect to spend 3,597 seconds between finding blocks (2 ^ 32 * difficulty / hashrate). So about every hour, our miner can expect to earn 0.05 VTC. This works out to be about 1.2 VTC per day, and when we extrapolate over the estimated 21 days of solo mining above, we’re back to 25 VTC.
The beauty of pooled-mining over solo-mining is that the time between blocks, whilst they can vary, should be closer to the predicted / estimated times over a shorter time period. The same applies when comparing pools – pools with a smaller hash rate will experience a greater variance in time between blocks than a pool with a greater hash rate. But in the end, looking back over a longer period of time, earnings will be the same.
A Hash is a cryptographic function that can take an arbitrary sized block of data and maps it to a fixed sized output. It is a one-way function – only knowing the input data can one calculate the output; the reverse action is impossible. Also, small changes to the input data usually result in significant changes to the output value.
For example, take the following string:
“the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog” 
If we perform a SHA256 hash of this, it results in:
If we change a single character in the input string (in this case we will replace the ‘o’ in ‘over’ to a zero), the resulting hash becomes:
A block is made up of a header, and at least one transaction. The first transaction in the block is called the Coinbase transaction – it is the transactions that creates new coins, and it specifies the addresses that those coins go to. The Coinbase transaction is always the first transaction in a block, and there can only be one. All other transactions included in a block are transactions that send coins from one wallet address to another.
The block header is an 80-byte block of data that is made up of the following information in this order:
  • Version – a 32-bit/4-byte integer
  • Previous Block’s SHA256d Hash – 32 bytes
  • Merkle Hash of the Transactions – 32 bytes
  • Timestamp - a 32-bit/4-byte integer the represents the time of the block in seconds past 1st January 1970 00:00 UTC
  • nBits - a 32-bit/4-byte integer that represents the maximum value of the hash of the block
  • Nonce - a 32-bit/4-byte integer
The Version of a block remains relatively static through a coin’s lifetime – most blocks will have the same version. Typically only used to introduce new features or enforce new rules – for instance Segwit adoption is enforced by encoding information into the Version field.
The Previous Blocks’ Hash is simple a doubled SHA256 hash of the last valid blocks header.
The Merkle Hash is a hash generated by chaining all of the transactions together in a hash tree – thus ensuring that once a transaction is included in a block, it cannot be changed. It becomes a permanent record in the blockchain.
Timestamp loosely represents the time the block was generated – it does not have to be exact, anywhere within an hour each way of the real time will be accepted.
nBits – this is the maximum hash that this block must have in order to be considered valid. Bitcoin encodes the maximum hash into a 4-byte value as this is more efficient and provides sufficient accuracy.
Nonce – a simple 4-byte integer value that is incremented by a miner in order to find a resulting hash that is lower than that specified by nBits.
submitted by nzsquirrell to VertcoinMining [link] [comments]

Has the Bitcoin Hash Rate Peaked? Comparisons with Oil Show Interesting Findings

Has the Bitcoin Hash Rate Peaked? Comparisons with Oil Show Interesting Findings
The Bitcoin mining hash rate had been exponentially increasing on average since the genesis block in 2009, from MH/s, to GH/s, to TH/s, to PH/s, to EH/s, and it reached an all-time record high of 62 EH/s on 26 August 2018. Since this peak was reached, the Bitcoin mining hash rate gradually plateaued and has now decreased. The chart of Bitcoin mining hash rate actually looks quite similar to a peak oil chart except on a much faster time-scale, as can be seen in the comparison between Bitcoin’s hash rate over the course of 2 years from and North Sea oil production from an article in The Oil Drum: Europe by Euan Mearns. As explained below, the dynamics between peak oil and peak Bitcoin mining are similar, with the key difference that Bitcoin mining is decentralized and oil is not.
Geologist M. King Hubbert is the founder of the peak oil theory, which states that there is a point when the maximum extraction rate of petroleum is reached, after which a terminal decline in production ensues. The peak rate of extraction of Bitcoin of course occurred during the period after the genesis block and before the first block halving, when the block reward was at its maximum of 50 Bitcoins. However, this is not the peak rate of mining profitability, since Bitcoin increased in price by orders of magnitude through the year 2017. The peak rate of Bitcoin mining profits undoubtedly was simultaneous with Bitcoin’s all-time record high of USD 20,000 in December 2017.
The reason the peak hash rate did not coincide with the peak rate of Bitcoin mining profits is because the rally happened so quickly that mining operations were not able to add rigs fast enough, so there was a lag effect. Even for mining operations with large amounts of capital it can take months to obtain the amount of mining equipment that they want, and for other mining operations it took even longer because they had to obtain investors, buy land, build infrastructure, and only then could they install the rigs and begin hashing.
The Bitcoin mining hash rate chart implicitly indicates that 30 EH/s of Bitcoin mining equipment has been taken offline due to lack of profitability, which represents tens of billions of USD of wasted rigs. This suggests that Bitcoin miners were caught by surprise by the decline in Bitcoin’s price from USD 20,000 to less than USD 4,000 as of 4 December 2018.
Coming back to the peak oil comparison, the current Bitcoin mining scene is like a rapid version of peak oil, combined with lack of coordination. Oil mining is a centralized and coordinated activity, where the oil is prospected, land is leased out and then an appropriate number of wells are drilled. With oil mining, companies cannot drill as many wells as they want, or drill wells on someone else’s lease, since this is all closely controlled by contractual agreements. Bitcoin mining is decentralized, and no one has a lease or contract to only mine with a certain amount of hash rate. Anyone in the world can run as much Bitcoin mining rigs as they can afford. The effect is that people all around the world are sticking their straws into the Bitcoin mining network all at the same time, and they sucked it dry. Essentially, so many people started up new mining operations at once without coordination, that the Bitcoin mining hash rate went way past its equilibrium, which hurt everyone involved. This is akin to if oil drilling was a decentralized process, and anyone who wanted to drill for oil could drill in the same field. The oil field would be sucked dry really quick, and then most of the drills would be shut down due to lack of profits.
There is hope for Bitcoin miners however. The price of Bitcoin simply has to rally, and all of the disenfranchised miners could restart their rigs, and then it would be back to the races and new rigs could begin being added. However, due to the decentralization of Bitcoin mining, the network hash rate will likely periodically rise past its equilibrium point, leading to catastrophic conditions for miners like we are experiencing today at points in the future. The only thing that could prevent the scenario we are experiencing today is a Bitcoin rally that lasts forever, which is obviously not possible.
James McAvity tweeted that Bitcoin mining is still profitable in the current environment, and does some simple linear calculations to prove this point. He also argues that miners are forced to keep mining due to business agreements, choose to HODL in expectation of a rally, and continue mining in expectation of a downward difficulty adjustment as other miners go offline.
Some of what McAvity says is true, but the reality is that Bitcoin mining is a highly non-linear system, and calculating the support level for mining is somewhat pointless, since it is different for every miner. Bitcoin mining profitability depends on Bitcoin’s price, the Bitcoin network hash rate which is directly correlated to mining difficulty, and the technological efficiency of Bitcoin mining rigs. These 3 factors are related in a non-linear and ever-changing way.
Instead of trudging away at trying to develop a set of equations that determine mining hash rate behavior, one could simply look at the Bitcoin mining hash rate chart at the beginning of this article to understand what is going on. Bitcoin mining profitability is different for each individual miner, and the hash rate has trended downwards as individual miners have made the decision to shut down rigs. Clearly there was a fundamental mining profitability support level in the USD 6,000-7,000 range, since that is where Bitcoin’s price was when mining peaked and plateaued. There are clearly numerous miners who became unprofitable on the descent from that level to less than USD 4,000 today, and now approximately 50% of the Bitcoin mining equipment that exists cannot profitably mine. The decrease in Bitcoin’s mining difficulty of 15% on 3 December 2018 could help bring some of those miners back online, at least if the price stays at current levels around USD 4,000, but this will not change the overall trend.
When it comes down to it, Bitcoin’s price is in control of Bitcoin mining profitability, and if the price goes up we could see a reversal of the hash rate downtrend and eventually a 2nd peak in Bitcoin’s network hash rate. However, if price continues to go down, the Bitcoin mining hash rate chart will follow a similar pattern to peak oil charts. The reality will likely be a combination of both. Bitcoin bear markets tend to last years, and get more severe, but eventually the rally comes and then Bitcoin exceeds its all-time record high. This would lead to a steady decrease in Bitcoin’s mining hash rate like the peak oil chart, followed by a rapid re-engagement of old mining rigs that have been taken offline, and then the addition of new generation Bitcoin mining rigs once the equilibrium hash rate exceeds 60 EH/s.
submitted by turtlecane to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Tax Attorney here. I am around for discussion or questions related to Bitcoin Tax treatment, including tax planning opportunities for businesses and individuals.

Anyone have issues with their tax returns due to lots of Bitcoin usage or from the sale and disposition of Bitcoin? Anyone looking for any tax favorable planning opportunities? Either as an individual who sold a bunch for profit or for a business who has begun accepting Bitcoin for the first time.
My practice has focused on helping both individuals and businesses for Bitcoin tax related matters for much of this year. I am available for discussion here in the comments, and for more specific matters, please PM me.
I'm a tax attorney based in Los Angeles and big bitcoin fan and miner going way back. I've been lurking hear on bitcoin for years. I was a miner back in 2011-2013, build my own custom rigs with 6 Radeon 7970s.
Then I was among the first to receive a couple of BFL's 5 gh/s cubes and then one of the first 50 Gh/s. (I knew that was a lawsuit waiting to happen against BFL. Scoundrels) Good memories all around. I still have my spreadsheets keeping track of what I mined. Altogether, with the pools, I mined over 100 bitcoin. Alas, I sold many of them when the price was $300 or less.
All this time I was focusing on tax law, finishing Tax LLM courses in Los Angeles. So, it was inevitable that the two interests would merge. I ended up writing a proposal to treat Bitcoin as currency as opposed to property.
Here is a link to my paper on this which Tax Notes published as their cover story a few months back, which was completely unexpected but kinda cool to see this niche interest rewarded.
Paper: "Bitcoin: Property or Currency?"
Got to go on a State Bar Delegation to DC to enlighten folks with the power to actually do something about it. Delegation met with IRS Chief Counsel, including people who drafted the Notice treating Bitcoin as property. Also folks from Treasury Dept, Senate Finance Committee, House Ways & Means, etc.
I urged for currency treatment (as opposed to property treatment) of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, in fact anything built on the basis of the Blockchain meant as a mode to transact money.
If any of you guys had to do your taxes this year, and have bought and spent a lot of Bitcoin, or even just mined and sold, you probably know some of the difficulties I'm alluding to without even mentioning.
Should we really have to calculate capital gains/loss on the purchase of a cup of coffee at your neighborhood cryptocurrency friendly coffee shop, for example? Even with purchases at or Dell, you were technically supposed to calculate capital gains and losses and provide supporting backup on your tax returns this year.
What a practical and administrative nightmare for both taxpayers and for the IRS who has to wade through this. I feel like some of what I wrote got through to them. As we all know, government lags far behind emerging technologies. But they did seem genuinely interested, and I do not believe my paper and proposal fell upon deaf ears.
I have my own law office these days and work with or for many attorneys on various matters, just as I have a number of attorneys assist me. No such thing as a pure solo practitioner these days. No man can afford to be an island.
This tax year has been very rewarding and helped a great many tax clients with Bitcoin issues from anything to bookkeeping to strategic planning for the short-term as well as long-term.
Any accountant knows the terms LIFO and FIFO, but there's seemingly no hard and fast rules for measurement for when a particular bitcoin was bought and sold for purposes of calculating gains/losses. Also, no hard and fast rules as to where the particular market price of Bitcoin is found on a particular day.
Everything is loose, open to interpretation by the tax payer, and with strategic guidance, can prove incredibly tax favorable ultimately. It is wise for a business to accept Bitcoin for many reasons, including that broad opportunity for interpretation while staying true to the property guidance.
So, it is ultimately very taxpayer friendly due to this broad leeway. More than that, treating bitcoin and cryptocurrencies as property rather than currency is also taxpayer friendly by definition. Your bitcoin gains will only be taxed at your capital gains rate instead of as ordinary income, a higher rate.
I assisted a lot of individuals and even businesses who accepted bitcoin for the first time this year. I intended to post on /bitcoin before to offer my services and to also just allow people to send me questions, which I am happy to discuss in private for free.
I got pretty slammed up to tax day, but I'm free now. Just hit me up by private message or shoot me an email at thebitcoinlawyer at g mail.
Any questions or thoughts, I'll be around. I'm often around /bitcoin anyway. Love this community. And if I can serve as help for any of you, all the better. Thanks.
TL;DR Bitcoin Tax Attorney available for discussion on tax issues here in comments, or for more personalized issues, hit me up by PM
submitted by BitcoinTaxAttorney to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Where is the network difficulty headed, come November?

Reposted for accuracy. (Read: My math skills are the result of public education.)
KNCMiner announced today that they're doing encapsulation on their new Scrypt ASIC chips, and then when they're completed, will be shipping to Stockholm for integration and testing, buildout and finally...shipping!
I have read on forums that they have sold 3,000 Titans via pre-order, for batch 1, at 250MH/s nominal performance, each. I figured it was time to look at my "hashrate/difficulty prediction" again and see where it may actually be, by the time the snow's falling. All of the below is calculated with a Litecoin price of around $5.
Let's assume for a moment that both Alpha Technology and Mining ASICs Technologies have also sold around 3,000 systems on pre-order (probably a safe bet) and all three expect to ship in September-October.
9,000 systems @ 250MH/s = 2,250,000MH/s. That's somewhere in the neighborhood of 2.25 TH/s being added to the network in roughly two months' time...that we can account for.
The current network hashrate, as I post this? Not quite 1 TH/'s 896 GH/s. But at the current rate of network expansion, we're going to be 1 TH/s by the time these systems ship, easily.
So...let's say we're looking at a 3.5 TH/s Litecoin network by November. What does that mean?
When the Bitcoin network hit 3.5 TH/s back in May of 2011, the difficulty was around 244,000. Litecoin's difficulty is currently around 28,000.
You can probably see where this is going, already. Fun with mining calculators time.
Say you have one 250MH/s miner and deployed it TODAY (impossible, but for the sake of argument). You're looking at pulling in 9 LTC/day with it. If you pay $.10/kwh you're very lucky not to live in California, but we'll say that's the case. You pay around $4.50/day in power. So you walk away with $42.50 worth of Litecoin, at $5/each. If you somehow managed to freeze the network at that difficulty and the coin at that price, you'd pay off your $9,200 purchase of hardware in roughly seven months or so...or if you bought a Titan at $10,000 you're looking closer to eight. But since difficulty marches on, forget that entire concept.
Now...say you get your system after all three companies have shipped and their customers have deployed them, and we've seen the network rocked to the tune of two-and-a-quarter terahashes per second. Oh, it's a rosy picture...
Now, with the network difficulty having blown up to 244,000 the miner with a 250MH/s system is mining 1.03 Litecoin per day. And if my estimates are correct...this is NOVEMBER, we're talking about. At the current price of $5/LTC and $.10/kwh you are pulling down a healthy $0.80/day in profits, after power. If you again had the power to freeze the hashrate and price, you'd be able to pay off that hardware purchase in, oh...roughly 35 years.
To have a REASONABLE shot at getting a return on your investment (around 5-6 months), Litecoin will need to be $70 by November and climbing steadily, in concert with network hashrate.
Bear in mind, again that there is nowhere else for that hashrate to go but Litecoin. Nothing else will profit the Scrypt miner. So what will happen? There is built-in hardware cost here that has to be recouped and the only real way of doing that is by mining...and there's only one game in town for Scrypt mining: Litecoin.
It's going to be a really, really wild fourth quarter for this year. Either the miners mine and hoard, decreasing supply and demand increases radically, or miners take heavy losses on hardware, can't afford to run them and the Litecoin network contracts until they CAN make money with them. In the interests of self-preservation, I have a feeling miners will start hoarding. Soon.
submitted by FreeJack2k2 to litecoin [link] [comments]

Buratino Blockchain Solutions: we have found new solutions to old problems

The market of the mining equipment continues to develop strenuously contrary to adverse conditions on the crypto exchanges. Technologies are constantly improving, increasing growth of mining profitability at the reduction of energy consumption and partly compensating negative dynamics of cryptocurrencies rates. However, it automatically increases the complexity of production of new digital coins that form request for creation of more powerful equipment.
Industry is constantly changing and miners need to be able to understand modern trends of the branch. Let’s discuss market tendencies, new technology solutions capability to affect the efficiency of this business, and how exactly our team is ready to help miners.
Mining market today Lets begin with the general review of the market, with emphasis on forecasts of the authoritative research companies. Analysts of the American consulting company Coherent Market Insights are convinced: in the medium term (5–10 years) mining will be profitable. Demand for the new equipment will remain high even during the crypto -markets depression.
According to the last forecast of the company, by 2025 mining industry will exceed the capitalization level of $16,3 billion. The indicator of cumulative average annual growth rate (CAGR), according to experts, will grow by 18,68% from 2017 to 2025.
At the time of posting, the greatest share of computing capacities has been concentrated in Asia. Experts from other large consulting company Technavio consider that the Pacific Rim will take 51% of the general growth of the industry in 2018–2022. Then the share of the Pacific Rim will be reduced below 50% level.
The cause is a hard governmental line of China in relation to crypto industry. It makes miners migrate to other countries of North and South America and Eastern Europe.
According to the Technavio, 33% of the market is now in the New World, but the share of the USA will grow, forcing out China. Coherent Market Insights experts are solidary with colleagues, and also give the future world leadership to North America.
Improvement of production technologies of cryptocurrencies and increase in productivity of the hardware remains a key tendency of the current market. Along with it large producers of microelectronics, such as Samsung and United Microelectronics Corporation are entering the market as suppliers of hi-tech accessories.
The large manufacturing companies (Bitmain Technologies, BitFury, Advanced Micro Devices, etc.) actively develop ASIC systems with bigger energy efficiency and the increased hashrate coefficients. It is important for providing the more effective mining. However alternation of generations in available lines of the equipment happens slowly that opens opportunities for new players, such as our company.
According to the Coinshares company, hashrate of the only one Bitcoin network grows by 300% annually, the efficiency of chips increases by 80%, and their cost falls on average on 50%. So the profitability of digital coins production grows even in conditions of crypto rate instability with the introduction of new technologies in ASIC-mining . 74% of the mining market is the share of ASIC of all configurations in 2017. It is expected that they will continue to dominate.
The process of improvement of the hardware leads to the growth of volumes of the mined coins. But the more is mined, the quicker the algorithm of generation of new blocks in the network complicates. As a result — miners need capacities to grow.
Escalating levels of complexity become nearly the main factor of mining equipment market growth in the medium term. For example, analysts of Technavio predict the increase in growth rates for 2018 by 9,04%.
Increase in productivity as natural selection To be a successful miner means always to work proactively. Anyone who first manages to use more productive mining systems also remains in a prize or at least in the market.
The magazine describes how the market of a mining is affected by the generation of more productive machines. All of us remember the last year's agiotage around the first ASIC systems for Dash cryptocurrency. Before it was mined only on video cards and brought the monthly income of $1-1,5 thousand from one farm. New miner (DM11G from iBeLink, Antminer D3 from Bitmain and DR-100 from Pinidea) promised income from $5 thousand from each installation.
Those who the first have managed to connect ASIC to Dash network succeeded the most. Their monthly income has made about $6 thousand, but it was not for a long time. The rapid growth of the number of ASIC devices in the network has provoked the same fast increase in complexity of calculations.
Therefore the payback period of one ASIC system has increased from 3-4 to 12 months. As a result, by the end of 2017, the profitability of Dash mining has decreased almost by 3 times (in comparison with September of the same year). In completion to everything, the Dash rate has fallen off in spring 2018.
Production of cryptocurrency is favorable only to those who quickly reacts to the production of the new hardware. Only being guided by new generation equipment or modernizing old ones it is possible not to lose.
Recent leaders VS perspective beginners BitFury and Bitmain remain recognized leaders in the global market in summer 2018. BitFury generally specializes in providing mining decisions under specific projects. Bitmain, on the contrary, is guided by production and sale of the ready-made mining systems.
Today the market is rather highly consolidated and more than a half of all computing capacities belongs to largest companies. Nevertheless, Coherent Market Insights analysts consider that in the near future deconsolidation of branch due to the appearance of new players is expected.
This segment is also interesting to us. With the support of the community on ICO, we will be able to impose market competition to the acting leaders. Just because present devices have a number of problems which are still not solved by anyone except for us.
Support of the only one cryptocurrency, the impossibility of the partial modification, high noise level, high costs of cooling and a lot of things still. Everything remains unresolved.
We plan to put on the market the multi-mining system of the new generation Papa Carlo. The equipment surpasses competitors in all key indicators: energy efficiency, productivity, customizability, the number of coins, etc.
With our development, it will be not just ASIC anymore, but the first real multi-miner, allowing to get fifteen digital currencies on the most popular algorithms SHA-256 and SCRYPT.
It is difficult to overestimate the potential of such a product. Papa Carlo is capable to take the worthy place in the market of the CIS and the whole world. It is enough to compare our technological product to the acting leader of sales - Antminer s9, to estimate all range of advantages of Papa Carlo.
Compare several key indicators of Papa Carlo and Antminer s9:
hashrate of Papa Carlo – 26 Th/s, Antminer s9 – 13,5 Th/s; Papa Carlo processors – 10 nanometers, Antminer s9 – 16 nanometers; the number of Papa Carlo chips – 210, Antminer s9 – 189; energy efficiency of Papa Carlo – 0,065 J/Gh, Antminer s9 – 0,1 J/Gh; Papa Carlo noise level – 35-45 dB, Antminer s9 – 75-80 dB. Conclusion Papa Carlo is a high-performance equipment which can compete with leaders of the market. Our Buratino Blockchain Solutions company provides its development and service.
The issue of own token will allow attracting the capital for scaling of business and distribution our multi-miner. Everyone who wishes to receive exclusive privileges from the producer at a stage of the closed sales can join our tokensale.
submitted by BuratinoBlockChainSo to u/BuratinoBlockChainSo [link] [comments]

Electricity Consumption: Bitcoin mining vs The current global financial system

According to this article, there are currently 93,000 bank branches in the US.
For Air conditioning let us assume each bank branch has this AC unit: at 5kw, and uses it 20% of the time, 50% of the year. 5kw * 24 * 0.2 * 0.5 * 365= 4,380 kwh x 93,000 = 407 GWh per year.
We will estimate lighting at 6 of these fixtures, on 12 hours per day. 360 * 6 * 12 * 365/1000 = 9,460 kwh * 93,000 = 880 GWh
Computers are about the same. A bank branch will have 6 computers on at any given time, with ~300w used by the tower and another 60 by the monitor, working out to be 360 * 6 * 12 * 365/1000 = 9,460 kwh * 93,000 = 880 GWh
This would make AC, computers and lighting add up to a staggering 2,167 GWh.
For mining bitcoin, let us be fair and use the figure of 1w/GH, since not everyone is using hardware that can achieve 0.7w/GH or lower yet. At 75 petahash, we're looking at 75MW of power. Mining hardware runs all day so: 75MW * 24 * 365 = 657 GWh
2,167 GWh / 657 GWh = 3.3x more energy used by bank branches in the US.
This could be stated as bitcoin using 30.3% of the energy of US bank branches, or 69.7% less energy.
If you include the entire financial system (corporate offices, call centers, stock/commodity/futures/forex markets, auditing, regulatory and compliance offices, etc), you would probably have to at least double energy consumption (in the US alone) and then quadruple that again for a worldwide figure. Therefore we could increase this estimate by (very roughly) 8x, making bitcoin mining consume ~3.79% electricity compared to the existing global financial system, and this figure of 3.79% will be cut in half in 114 weeks.
[These figures do not include natural gas, gasoline from employee/customer commutes, or paper waste in their calculation]
submitted by TheSelfGoverned to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin "difficulty" already gone from 8.000.000 to 10.076.292 in a few days, how will asic mining effect "difficulty" in the coming months?

Not completely sure how the bitcoin algorithm work, but from what I understand the more computing power you throw into the system, the higher the "Difficulty Factor". And with a higher Difficulty Factor it becomes less profitable to mine bitcoins. In just a few days I see that the Difficulty Factor has increased quite fast, meaning a week ago with a 5gh/s setup you would mine 9.45 BTC a month, while now, with the same amount of computing power you would only get 7.59 BTC a month..
Assuming what I said here is correct, again, not an expert. One day I'll look into the source code and learn more about it. Anyway. What are the predictions of the Difficulty Factor the next coming months with butterfly labs and other shipping hundreds of components capable of producing 50 GH/s..
My prediction is that GPU mining will die out as the difficulty level increases dramatically. How much I have no idea, but while a 5 GH/s setup gives a lot of BTC now, it might just produce a few cents in two months.. What are your predictions?
submitted by jappacappa to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

The Concept of Bitcoin

The Concept of Bitcoin
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority.
The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin.
Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value.
Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers.
The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone.
Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency.
The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies.
Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto
What is the Mining of bitcoin?
Technical details :
During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized.
The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network.
Material :
In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU.
Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time.
For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment
In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency.
A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people.
The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins.
The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7.
Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs.
There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology.
Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable.
Software :
There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains.
Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner.
If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
submitted by Josephbitcoin to u/Josephbitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining & The Beauty Of Capitalism

Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times,
While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish.
The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it?
Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback.
Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again.
As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap.
This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.

Time to Catch Up

What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure.
Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people.
The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers.
A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market.
And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress.
And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.

The Case For Mining

Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist.
For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year.
All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate.
So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified.
Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides?
This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human.

_Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply.
So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations.
If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too.
However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.

Different Money, Different Costs

How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks?
What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here.
Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions.
The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound.
In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money.
Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules.
Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble.
The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin.
And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation.

_The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network.
According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate.
According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year.
“Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing.
“I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times.
Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market.
The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential.
There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio.
It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals.
In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time.
In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.

The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining

But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity.
In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity
Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution.
Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy.
This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground.
All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them.
“The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.

Centralized Mining

But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory.
Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour.
This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity.
This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018.

Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“
They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative.
So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort.
This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017.
But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.

Northern Bitcoin Case Study

Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China.
But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered.
The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one.
Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow.
And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower.

A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas.
As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany.
The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.

Excess Power

In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity.
Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north.
“The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play.

A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground.
Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine.
Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine.
“We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.

Efficiency, Efficiency

Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient.
Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is.
Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice.
This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert.
But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes.
The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes.
The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord.
The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment.
To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.

_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics

Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed.
At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent.
Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc.
Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day.
But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this.
As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices.

Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers.
Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step.
The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway.
Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited.
The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.

Norway Powerhouse?

Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power.
But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out.
“Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.

A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade.
To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit.
The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space.
However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption.
Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively.
The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.”
Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions.
But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally.
However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM.
“It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.
Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world.
Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.”
Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.

Cheap Producer Advantage

At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall.
But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network.
Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk.
As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first.
As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example.
When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer.
However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them.
“The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December.
This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last.
And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system.
The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system. It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
submitted by rotoreuters to zerohedge [link] [comments]

Is all mining now negative return-on-investment?

I have been closely watching the mining scene for only about 3 months, so excuse me if this sort of question is asked frequently, or is too speculative.
Is all BTC mining now underwater, with a negative ROI?
That's what it looks like to me. I initially got interested years ago, when the return was small and BTC was not worth much. I didn't mine because it seemed like a miniscule return on investment. Oh I wish I had started back then, those "worthless" BTCs would be worth a lot now.
But I started getting more interested again when that Ars Technica article on the BFL Jalapeno appeared. Holy crap, a machine that prints free money. He made hundreds of bucks in a week.
So I started checking it out. With the delays in BFL's product shipping, all the mining calculators show that any new investment in mining hardware will never break even. Difficulty is increasing so fast, that the only machines making money are already in place, and soon they won't even pay for the cost of electricity.
Now just to screw this up even further, BFL did a classic "Osborne Effect" announcement of their new Monarch board. Their existing ASIC machines are obsolete. The new 28nm machine that does not exist yet, is promised to deliver 600Gh for 350 watts, and costs $4680. I ran the numbers through the mining calculator at The Genesis Block. Unfortunately their calculator seems to be down at the moment, but I recall running numbers on a Monarch, delivered even in December, would not break even unless BTC went up to 2000 per dollar!
Now even accounting for BFL's broken promises, if I could buy mining hardware like this today and turn it on now, it would make a negative ROI. I run the numbers for every possible hardware I could buy, none of them are as cheap in dollars/Gh or Gh/watt as the Monarch. And none of them break even.
I decided to track the existing performance of mining using my dinky Mac mini's GPU. It won't mine much, and GPU mining will never break even in a network full of ASICs. But it would give a rough index of how difficulty is affecting mining. Here's a rough description of my results. At this point, it looks like mining is doubling in difficulty every month. Nobody can make money unless either BTC rises in value dramatically, or the majority of miners give up and unplug their unprofitable mining hardware.
So someone tell me if this assessment is realistic or not. At the moment, it looks like any new investment in mining hardware will result in turning every dollar of investment into 50 cents worth of BTC at most. With increasing difficulty, soon even existing mining hardware will be turning every dollar of electricity into less than a dollar worth of BTC. ROI is underwater now for new hardware, and soon will be underwater for all hardware, even advanced ASICs that haven't even shipped yet. There are only two ways that mining might ever make a profit. One is if almost everyone gives up when their miners become unprofitable. The other is if BTC goes up massively in value to like $2500/USD, which will only fuel the arms race even more.
Yeah, I know there is a big incentive to spread disinformation to convince people to drop out of mining. So don't try to BS me. Let me hear your honest assessments, or please point me in a direction where I can do research to figure this out.
submitted by nmrk to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Some thoughts about network security (compared to bitcoin)

Just like any crypto, an attacker controlling more than 50% of the hashing power is fatal for the network. IOTA is not different. Hashing power is needed to provide proof of work to submit valid transactions.
Possible attacks could be double spending after a merchant accepts a transaction, invalidating the "correct" subtangle by creating a new (larger) one. This is not a secret, it's written down in IOTA's whitepaper (see section 4 [Even more, in the “ideal” situation of this mathematical model, this attack always succeeds.]) That's why IOTA is currently under protection of the coordinator, since the network is not yet large enough.
Let's calculate the amount of transactions per seconds for the current POW difficulty (MWM) of 14 for the IOTA network to be as secure as bitcoin:
Obviously the MWM would then be a lot higher - for example 23 - resulting in 26 transactions per second with the same hashing power. If the network grew that large, 2000€ equipment would need about 5.5 hours to POW 1 IOTA transaction. This could then result in other people selling their hashing power for some fees - bringing back the plain old mining system to IOTA.
I'm not an IOTA expert, feel free to correct me if I provided wrong information.
submitted by Ant1Zykl0n to Iota [link] [comments]

All about bitcoin mining

I have been mining BTC in hashflare for about 13 months. I have already received 50 times my initial investment of small 100$ to 5000$, giving the fact that I did not reinvest and the BTC prices have risen tremendously.
I have again started mining with hash flare and I am quite sure that since the price of BTC is expected to rise to 50k - 100k in 2018, my initial investment of 600$ this time will give me close to 10k-20k$ with the investment strategy I have chosen.
If you like to join BTC mining with a minimal investment and get returns in thousands of $s then you can join via my affiliate link (small commission without effecting your investment) and I will give you my tips to grow your money exponentially.
What is HashFlare?
HashFlare is a department of HashCoins, a company that develops software for cloud mining and maintains equipment in datacenters.
Hashflare provides cloud mining contracts to the buyers for 365 days. The mining starts immediately after the purchase and the output can be seen after 24hrs.
What all cryptocurrencies can I mine with Hashflare service?
HashFlare provides cloud mining on the following algorithms:
SHA-256, which is used to mine Bitcoins;
Scrypt, which is used to mine Litecoins*;
ETHASH, which is used to mine Ethereum;
X11, which is used to mine DASH.
*payouts are provided in BTC using the current exchange rate taken from cryprocurrency market.
How long does the contract last?
SHA-256 and SCRYPT contracts last 1 year(365 days) and are subject to maintenance and electricity fees (MEF).
ETHASH, EQUIHASH and DASH contracts last for 1 year (365 days) and are not subject to any fees.
How to calculate estimated profit using hashrate?
Profit is calculated via the deduction of expensesfrom income.
The income consists of daily payouts which size depends on the hashrate. In order to calculate an estimated income using the hashrate you will need to include it in one of the calculators below (set all Power values to zero):
1. Bitcoin - for SHA-256
2. Litecoin - for Scrypt
3. Ethereum - for ETHASH (set all Power values to zero)
4. DASH - for X11 (set all Power values to zero)
5. Zcash - for EQUIHASH (set all Power values to zero)
Next, deduct the maintenance + electricity fee of 0.0035 USD per 10 GH/s of SHA-256 and 0.005 USD per 1 MH/s of Scrypt from the income. ETHASH, X11 and EQUIHASH contracts are not subject to any fees.
The sum you end up with is your estimated profit. Join at
submitted by letsolioforlife to u/letsolioforlife [link] [comments]

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator
Check out my HashFlare Microsoft Excel calculator to show how much Hashrate will mine Bitcoins each day. This is for the SHA-256 algorithm. HashFlare sells Hashrate for buyers to cloud mine Bitcoins. You give them USD or BTC and in return they sell you Hashrate, which in return produced Satoshis (lowest unit of a Bitcoin).
To use the Excel: bold cell font are user input or headers. There are 3 worksheets: HashFlare, Contract, and Bitcoins.
The HashFlare worksheet has 3 user inputs:
• First is Hash Power: input how much Hashrate to buy.
• Second is Current Balance: input how many BTC you may already have in your account.
• Third is Lowest Price BTC: the price per 10,000,000,000 Hashrate is $2.20.
a) The price varies in BTC due to the constant change in BTC/USD value. b) 10,000,000,000 Hashrate used to cost $1.50 but due to high demand the price went up and will continue so get in while prices are still low.
The Contract worksheet is informational only (no user input), what you buy is 1-year contract of Hashrate. When you consider the future of the Hashrate you bought this worksheet deducts 1-year old purchases because the contract expired scroll down to view the future. One year later, my formula automatically deducts year old purchased Hashrate.
The Bitcoins worksheet has 4 user inputs:
• First is Reward per Block: right now, when a minepool solves a block they are rewarded 12.5 Bitcoins.
a) There soon will be a halving and the reward will be 6.25.
• The second is Difficulty: as more miners mine the Blockchain the difficulty increases. a) This ensures a Billionaire will not invest a mammoth amount of money to mine a drastic number of Bitcoins and in turn becomes a Trillionaire and enslave the Earth.
• Third is BTC to USD: input an updated value to seek precision on how much 10,000,000,000 Hashrate cost or go on HashFlare website and find it for yourself.
a) The bold cell where it is one, decimal, and eight zeros is to know how various BTC amounts to USD.
Google everything you need to learn and know. To edit the Excel workbook, you must download the file first. The dates are always updated to today and it helps you to know what day how much BTC you will earn if you invest today and reup 100% of the daily payments. This does not consider external investments after the first investment. Take into consideration as time progress it is safe to assume the difficulty will increase. Therefore, this Excel is good to eye ball the work in the short run and gives a dream in the long run. Use my referral link so we both get a bonus!
12JTNXpLe3Lc6K6W5CL86zZyhY26uQyGhY Bitcoin Donation Address!As44fpPGkuI4he9pXA0iNbq1-KXFRA
submitted by bitcoineconomics2018 to u/bitcoineconomics2018 [link] [comments]

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator

HashFlare Bitcoin Calculator
Check out my HashFlare Microsoft Excel calculator to show how much Hashrate will mine Bitcoins each day. This is for the SHA-256 algorithm. HashFlare sells Hashrate for buyers to cloud mine Bitcoins. You give them USD or BTC and in return they sell you Hashrate, which in return produced Satoshis (lowest unit of a Bitcoin).
To use the Excel: bold cell font are user input or headers. There are 3 worksheets: HashFlare, Contract, and Bitcoins.
The HashFlare worksheet has 3 user inputs:
• First is Hash Power: input how much Hashrate to buy.
• Second is Current Balance: input how many BTC you may already have in your account.
• Third is Lowest Price BTC: the price per 10,000,000,000 Hashrate is $2.20.
a) The price varies in BTC due to the constant change in BTC/USD value. b) 10,000,000,000 Hashrate used to cost $1.50 but due to high demand the price went up and will continue so get in while prices are still low.
The Contract worksheet is informational only (no user input), what you buy is 1-year contract of Hashrate. When you consider the future of the Hashrate you bought this worksheet deducts 1-year old purchases because the contract expired scroll down to view the future. One year later, my formula automatically deducts year old purchased Hashrate.
The Bitcoins worksheet has 4 user inputs:
• First is Reward per Block: right now, when a minepool solves a block they are rewarded 12.5 Bitcoins.
a) There soon will be a halving and the reward will be 6.25.
• The second is Difficulty: as more miners mine the Blockchain the difficulty increases. a) This ensures a Billionaire will not invest a mammoth amount of money to mine a drastic number of Bitcoins and in turn becomes a Trillionaire and enslave the Earth.
• Third is BTC to USD: input an updated value to seek precision on how much 10,000,000,000 Hashrate cost or go on HashFlare website and find it for yourself.
a) The bold cell where it is one, decimal, and eight zeros is to know how various BTC amounts to USD.
Google everything you need to learn and know. To edit the Excel workbook, you must download the file first. The dates are always updated to today and it helps you to know what day how much BTC you will earn if you invest today and reup 100% of the daily payments. This does not consider external investments after the first investment. Take into consideration as time progress it is safe to assume the difficulty will increase. Therefore, this Excel is good to eye ball the work in the short run and gives a dream in the long run. Use my referral link so we both get a bonus!
12JTNXpLe3Lc6K6W5CL86zZyhY26uQyGhY Bitcoin Donation Address!As44fpPGkuI4he9pXA0iNbq1-KXFRA
submitted by bitcoineconomics2018 to u/bitcoineconomics2018 [link] [comments]

A Question on Wallets and LiteCoin Profitibility

How do you keep the bitcoin wallet on a flash drive when the program is currently over 20 GB in size? Do you need a giant flash drive or...what? And is keeping your wallet out of reach of the internet a sure fire way to keep it from getting hacked, or is there another way to get the info?
Secondly, a question about LiteCoin- originally posted to bitcointalk:
I recently took an interest in mining but the standard Bitcoin profit calculators told me the sad news: that my PC would produce such a pitiful number of coins (like $20 worth a year, even with some simple gear) that it wasn't worth it (especially when considering electricity costs). But I happened upon a litecoin calculator and put in the same values (20 GHs/s, current difficulty, my computer's wattage, power costs, etc.) and the calc told me I could mine around $500k worth of LiteCoin (after exchanging to BTC then to USD at the current rates).
I'm assuming something's very off. Here's the calculator:
I'd be getting two Butterfly Labs 10 GH/s USB blocks ($50 each) and run my AMD Radeon 7700 GPU for a little more. I have a 250 watt PC and power's about 0.12 a kW. What's broken here, or can I really get rich on this alt currency?
submitted by mrmayge to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Part 40: Transcription, "Awan Brotherhood / Hillary's Hackers"

George Webb
The following are best-effort transcriptions of the George Webb Video Series. The series is a daily, ongoing open source investigation of HRC with researchers in #HRCRatline on twitter and facebook and trello.
Previous Notes
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10
Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19 Part 20
Part 21 Part 22 Part 23 Part 24 Part 25 Part 26 Part 27 Part 28 Part 29 Part 30
Part 31 Part 32 Part 33 Part 34 Part 35 Part 36 Part 37 Part 38 Part 39  
  • CONTINUED... [Day 195.2. Hillary'Hillarys, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 2 - YouTube]
    • If you look at previous drug operations, for instance, that we ran in Iraq with David Petraeus--if you read his book again, not my book all in, he talks about half of the people that were taken in kidnappings, or or what they call "extractions" in Special Forces were done without firing a shot.
    • Now how do you go into a hostile village with all these automatic weapons and all these guards and all this Isis and so forth, and not fire a shot?
    • And the way it's done is you fly over the village with--and you spray it with a sarin like substance--this is the same testing that they did in Porton Down important down in England in the 50s, with over Norwich and other towns along the coast and seacoast they had done it under over inland towns as well but then they wanted to see how the sea mist and the sea winds and
    • So forth affected it that's why they chose some of those coastal England towns, and everybody just goes to sleep.
    • You don't go to sleep right away but it operates in your parasympathetic nervous system--you kind of nod off kind of thing now they they do it at 2:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m. so that people are driving and so forth aren't affected, but every once a while you'll see a train driver fall asleep and stuff where they've done spraying US.
    • But when everybody's asleep you don't need to go in with a big team.
    • So if you have eight pot growers--let's say in Peebles Ohio--and this is Pike County, and their name is Rhoden.
    • There's six boys and there's two two wives, but they're all have guns they have 20 dogs and you would have to go in there with gosh 20 or 30 automatic weapons and and bulletproof vests, and if you're going to take those guys out.
    • Or you can spray em. Once you spray em, everybody goes asleep.
    • All you need is two Somali kids from a war-torn nation that have already shot seven or eight people in the head--by the time they're 13--
    • When they go in there everybody's asleep, they just they just shoot everybody in the head.
    • And that's exactly what happened in the Rhoden killings.
    • And all you need is a handler like Stevie Stevens, come down pick them up in Columbus, and then go to Pike County, and do that shooting, and that's exactly what happened in that shooting.
    • If you release the DNA evidence, Sheriff Reader, or release the tips, then we can follow up on that.
    • If in the other case, if in the Cleveland car dealer shooting, the Kuznik shooting, if they release the DNA for Stevie Stevens, and his phone records, we can see where he went a year before.
    • But if you just follow these handlers around, it'll kind of follow the kill ratlines.
    • So. We will be going to Ohio and I hope to interview Sheriff Pfizer.
    • And I would like to go to Peebles, Ohio and interview the mother, and the widow as well.
    • These are the kids were not you know Rhodes Scholars.
    • I'm not saying that, but they were growing pot. I mean it wasn't like they were running child sex rings, or any of the other stuff that's going on you know with the political class.
    • And they did not deserve to be murdered--I mean that's just ridiculous
    • So that's round two and we'll keep recording hopefully I get my PC issues challenged
    • So you won't have to look at my mug and we'll move on from there
  • [Day 195.3. Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 3 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 9 195 part three
    • One of the things I also wanted to talk about was off, offing the expenses of ratlines on to the Government.
    • In foreign countries, what DynCorp was allowed to do is: basically use the police forces that they were training to exact taxes on the country. And so the country was actually paying for the enforcement network.
    • But then someone had the bright idea: "well why don't we make all the people involved in our ratline confidential informants? If we make them confidential informants, then we can say that it's part of national security, and then have that part of the ratline"
    • So nine-tenths of the ratline is is informants and operatives
    • So we'll just off--we'll just put those off-book as well... we'll co-op the government expenses for those as well.
    • Well if you're running a ratline in the United States, you go, "well we got the sheriff okay the government's paying for that part of the red line, couldn't we do the same thing? Couldn't we have confidential informants working anti-terrorism, and teach these folks doing some you know light surveillance just you waiting at a location till somebody shows up, and sending a text saying they're there that kind of thing low-level low-level, relay work--what they used to call relay work.
    • Well guess what? That's exactly what happened.
    • Danna Priest a great journalist from the Washington Post, did a expose called Top Secret America in 2017.
    • So we really haven't had any work on this since 2017. But what she outlined was these 2,000 private companies.
    • It's basically a retirement plan for people in the intelligence community.
    • Basically they go start a security company, and there's these massive security companies you know like the one that Snowden worked for.
    • And G4S and and these mega companies. But then they hire a whole Christmas tree of security companies below them.
    • And at the street level it could be you know you can hire a landscaper with eight lawn cutters as your security company as your ratline.
    • And again if I'm sitting at a 7-eleven, waiting for a car to show up, with a certain license plate, and then it shows up, and then I text that back to whoever, it owns my quote/unquote security company I just made you know 15 bucks an hour for two hours, it's it's 30 bucks.
    • That allows me to buy supply when it comes in
    • So it's it's also kind of a jobs program. And it's kind of an ingenious jobs program of kind of putting the cost of running the ratline on to the people of the United States, rather than paying that in reducing profit......
    • So I just thought I would throw that in, oh by the way, those number of private security companies in America through DHS Department of Homeland Security has gone from 2200, when she wrote the article up to around I think the company that was tracking it in Ohio--it was around 7,000 in 2016, or 15 maybe. I'm guessing that is the numbers around 10,000
    • Now that's 10,000 organizations not employees the number of employees I would guess is about a hundred per.
    • But no accounting black-budget DynCorp we have no idea how much money is actually being spent but why not employ your ratline? That way they have money to buy the stuff that you're bringing in.
    • Also by the way the contacts with the ax wants Awans with their ability to reach into the DHS system, would be a fantastic way of managing your ratlines.
    • You could see all your people, all your payments, where your people are, what they've earned to date, all those kind of important things.
    • And again it's it's just taking what's been done overseas with DynCorp and bringing it to the United States
  • [Day 195.4. Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 4 - YouTube]
    • Payday 195 part 4
    • This is where I get to do corrections
    • No I was wrong: Dana Priest did Top-Secret America, one of the best series in Washington Post history.
    • The best reporting on the Intelligence Community, since the beginning of the CIA.
    • Was in 2010--Top Secret America--it was so good that Washington Post came back, and made it a--what I consider the best kind of journalism possible, where you can go on the site, with Washington Post, and interact with all the data she pulled together, and she had a couple of folks that she worked with, but Dana Priest was really the one who led the charge, and deserve that Pulitzer Prize.
    • And 2010 I think the Washington Post still has that site at because it was so good, and other research institutions continue to add to the research base that she created.
    • And as I have said in the past, I think the future of journalism is data-driven journalism, where the actual citizen journalists can interact with the data, and I'm try to do the same thing with the stuff that's created.
    • That metadata that's created from this series, with all the great research that's been done out there, I think we're up to three million words now, and all the metadata from the scraping.
    • Five Bibles plate King James Version 750 thousand words.
    • So yeah, about six Bibles, but it'll continue to grow more and more, and that's not counting the links the articles were the links point to which also have entities
    • So sometimes I don't make mistakes, sometimes I deliberately make what I should have said.
    • Yeah I knew Aristophanes calculated the circumference of the earth.
    • I just wanted to say Archimedes so badly, and it's a good story actually, because Archimedes was from Syracuse, Sicily, and you've got Aristophanes from where Libya is, not too far from Benghazi, in a place near modern-day Shiraz.
    • They both meet in Alexandria in Egypt, on the on the Nile, on the Mediterranean Sea.
    • So it's kind of an east-meets-west story.
    • They were contemporaries of each other.
    • So you know they're Stephanie's story now and modeling: it just shows you the power of modeling.
    • If you see the model enough, if you see enough parts of the earth, and you come up with the principle in simple terms, so that anyone in you know ninth grade math class, can recreate what you did, on any given summer solstice, or winter solstice, then you you hit on something--you've got a good principle.
    • And that's what I try to do in this series. I try to do that with, you know, showing the three-man-kill-teams.
    • I try to show that without DynCorp does with operates with sheriffs here in the US, and overseas I try to keep establishing those patterns as a matter-of-fact if you go to the home right now of Aristophanes which was in Cyrene, near Shirat, there's a modern-day slave market
    • So. In 2600 years, 2700 years I don't think we progressed that much, by having DynCorp run things.
    • On the flip side, Archimedes is known for the displacement of water--the Archimedean screw, the parabolic reflector, all these things I have to tell the story though--because it's my series, I can do what I want--of displacement, because you have the problem of a king with a crown. And a goldsmith made it for him. And they suspected the Goldsmith was mixing in silver to try to, you know up the profit a little bit.
    • It's kind of like a DynCorp contract you know, working in operatives, and calling them agents, and trying to get full pay...
    • So what they said is, "hey can you calculate how much gold should actually be in this?"
    • Well, everyone that they took it to, said, " well, you have to melt the crown down."
    • Archimedes said, "wait a minute now: if we put it in water what will happen is it'll displace the amount of water, that it's equal to the volume of the crown {{ marking the displacement line and removing the crown }}, then we'll take the water--we'll make equal volume in gold, we'll melt the gold, and we'll see if we'll put another equal amount of gold {{ to bring water up to the line...achieve the displacement }}, and we'll weigh [the crown and the 'amount of gold', displacing the same amount of water, next to] each other, that's how we'll know if it's all gold or not--very simple solution
    • I love the models, because the models then can be held up against reality and we can see what the truth really is.
    • And you're going to find this over and over again--these anomalies:
    • The Awans making $160,000 a year
    • The Awans with the passwords to Debbie Wasserman Schultz's laptop
    • The Awans getting the vault 7 hacking tools from the CIA,
    • The FBI director saying we can't release the metadata of the emails that the people of the United States owned through the Federal Records Act
    • We can't even release the metadata of your emails people of the United States of America, because it's not proof.
    • Well it doesn't matter if it's not proof, we own those emails you need to release the metadata at least of those emails doesn't matter of national security is involved or not because it was a violation of the law to plan and scheme with those emails to begin with
    • Same thing is true with all along the way here, in the investigation.
    • And these things, these models are like a litmus test, that you can apply in all situations.
    • The Kallstrom model of investigation, I call it: just "what would a common-sense investigator do?" and then compare that to the reality of what's actually happening
    • So there's a little bit of philosophy here, a little bit of history, a little bit of east-meets-west, a little bit of DynCorp motivation.
    • I think the DynCorp--if they were doing the would probably be all silver but a little bit of gold of gold plate on it
    • {{ 911:word}}
    • And that's it for round 4
  • [Day 195.5 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 5 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 195 part 5.
    • I'm in Plymouth Indiana on the way to Pittsburgh.
    • I won't exactly say why right now, but maybe stop in Ohio, but I don't want to be--I want to get a little element of surprise.
    • Anyway I just published to here Javed's social security number
    • Now I know what everybody's saying is, "oh my god he's a billionaire--if that's the same Tahir Javed, and he runs a ratline, and George, your dead, Pakistani ISI... okay, yeah maybe.
    • But what it's called Misprision.
    • Misprision of treason.
    • It's not "prison" I'm not mis-saying the word missed "prison".
    • It's Misprision of treason: it's against the law to not turn in or provide information to the FBI if you believe someone's committing treason or spying on the United States of America.
    • So I really don't have a choice here.
    • I'd do it anyway, but I don't really have a choice.
    • The reasons why I publish his social security number is just like the ax wands Awans: multiple Social Security numbers, multiple aliases, more than five or six houses in different states, Maryland again, Virginia again, Florida again, Pennsylvania again, it lots of overlap.
    • The two cities where we had houses before. And again, with multiple dates of issuance for the Social Security number 89 in 2002. And then they shut off the sixth social security information 2014.
    • I just don't, like you know, I can't take any chances. I'm really not taking chances for the American people--I'm taking a chance here personally probably with the billionaire's social security number.
    • But I'm not going to take chances with the American people.
    • {{ 911: translation: I'm putting my own life on the line for you. Thanks for that George. You're a hero }}
  • [Day 196.1. Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 1 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 196 I'm going to be traveling today to Pittsburgh
    • So I'm going to not be able to get to my slides.
    • If you watch the series, you'll notice I do a lot on modus operandi basically it's saying if there's a bank robbery in town, you look at all the people who've robbed banks before, and the people who are closest are most likely to have committed that crime versus somebody lives in India--let's say if you have a robber here in Indiana.
    • I don't know why that logic can't be applied across the board. motor swap around I modus operandi--I'm pretty sure it's Latin term that's been around for over 2,000 years.
    • You've got Feta Gulen--for people who don't know him Gulen--you can google it B being involved in a terrorist organization called FETO our key NATO partner in the Middle East--our only NATO partner in the Middle East, Turkey.
    • A person who he's known in for thirty years says he is a terrorist. And his organization FETO is a terrorist organization. Where does this person live? Somewhere close to the United States? NO! In Pittsburgh near not Pittsburgh near Philadelphia... near New York near Washington DC
    • So I look at those things. Well what was the modus operandi of Feta Gulen?
    • Well he helped infiltrate governments by taking them down with the needle--meaning opioids, rather than the gun.
    • He did it in 1979--operations like Cyclone working with Pakistani intelligence.
    • He did it with in Gladio B--if you want to google that Gladio B in Central Asia again Pakistani intelligence.
    • He did it in Turkey with politicians, lawyers, key police officials, military police officials, and doctors that was the most recent attempt for a coup
    • Nowhe's doing again in the United States
    • So what I do is I just present evidence and then let people make their own decisions
  • [Day 195.2. 196.2 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 2 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 196
    • This is part 2.
    • Just on the subject of modus operandi and Gulen, I found a really good article.
    • So they sent me a good series by a guy named Tariq Saeeid (Saeedi), basically I didn't I've never read him before, but basically just agreed, and supported everything I said about Gulen this morning.
    • And the other thing about the CIA running these operations is--it's the same thing over and over.
    • They just change the names
    • So the next operation I'd like everybody to Google just so there's a fact base here, it's [Operation Duck Soup]()
    • So it was taking those Chinese villagers--those Hmong's to grow opium--they're the ones who basically left China, when China went communist, and Chiang kai-shek-- was Formosa now Taiwan--and they grew opium, and the opium was flown--the heroin was flown into the Demilitarized Zone during the Vietnam War.
    • And that's how the opium, or the heroin crisis started in the United States.
    • The idea was will infect the soldiers first, get them introduced to heroin, and then they'll bring it back to all the cities in the United States, and that started in 1963 with Henry Kissinger.
    • But I'm not trying to pin this on Kissinger, but and Richard Holbrooke fought it, and all that.
    • So if you want to look at operation Duck Soup. It was basically using the needle again, against the American soldier.
    • Soldiers are a great target, because they're all together in one--they're clustered at ports, you can get at them with your own doctors, and it's a captive audience.
    • And again here we are 40 years later, we're targeting soldiers again.
    • The incidence of opioids--I think coming back from the Vietnam War was about 25 percent of the folks had some form of addiction problem.
    • I think now, coming back the soldiers are--I think I saw Brian Williams with MSNBC talking about 50%. 50% of the soldiers. * How is that not duck soup? That's duck soup!
    • So that's I'm here in Toledo making my way across Ohio going to Cleveland
  • [Day 195.3 196.3. Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 3 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 196 here near Strongsville Ohio
    • I just wanted to do an update on Gulen, and why I talked about Gulen this morning, and it's the linkage to Osama bin Laden.
    • I couldn't really do the linkage to Osama bin Laden, until I talked about Gulen, and his work in 1979, with the Mujahideen.
    • In all these revolutions, and all these coups, you need what? Infrastructure: you need an infrastructure guy, you got to make sure that you control the electrical grid, that you control the phone grid, the cell phones if the country has cell phones; the water supply, all the train routes; all the roads, and you need to put people in positions before the coup that you know control those things, the airports etc
    • So that's what I'm talking about is Gulen has done this for about 35 years now
    • And he's doing it in the United States.
    • He just tried it in Turkey
    • So, the reason why I'm going to Scranton, the reason why I'm going to Saylorsburg again, is to show this relationship
    • Now, all along the way, that's been tied to the Mujahideen.
    • The Mujahideen is the Pakistani ISI overt operations
    • So Gulen is the covert operations, and Osama bin Laden, Mujahideen, Pakistani ISI, all the same thing--is the over operations
    • So, that whole ratline I'm talking about: Pakistan to Turkey--that's that ratline I'm talking about then, in effect at least since 1979, but really the Mujahideen, really start that in Afghanistan, and then move it to Kosovo, through Albania in 1993 with Hillary.
    • So that's the connection to Hillary {{ 911:Iran-Contra / Mena AK. via "Amjad Awan" AND Huma/WeineAwans }}
    • Now the connections of the yuan brothers Awan brothers is they're Pakistani ISI, and they're being funded with the drug money from Turkey from Gulen about 90 miles away in Saylorsburg, and I'm drawing in that connection, and thickening that connection, because that's who's paying for it.
    • I did the 12 houses, I show the serial numbers tied to those 12 houses, with your Awan brothers
    • I just did Javed's 12 houses--also Pakistani ISI that's where the money is coming from
  • [Day 195.4 196.4 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 4 - YouTube]
    • Okay this is day 195196 part four.
    • The reason I'm here in Pittsburgh now filming this Salvation Army, was this used to be the front organizations where you could crash, if you were a CIA operative, or whatever.
    • The original Gladio program was through the Salvation Army in Eastern Europe.
    • As a matter-of-fact, Madeleine Albright's dad was a in the Salvation Army in Czechoslovakia, and that was the key resistance Gladio resistance by the CIA.
    • So much more so in the United Europe in the United States
    • So, I thought I would show that picture there.
    • And then just say that things have moved on. Now the Awan brothers, you know the Awan brothers and nicer places like this.
    • But they're safe houses all the same.
    • Barry Seal--just a little trivia--Barry Seal was shot in front of one of these in New Orleans, because he was trying to get to the safe house.
    • Barry Seal's the famous pilot who went from Mena Airport, and took weapons to Nicaragua, and then brought back cocaine.
    • And just across the street there's a City of Asylum--and it's this new form of restaurant slash bookstore, that is sort of a, oh, it would be a social justice type of restaurant book store.
    • And you can see there's a currently a nice quartet performing, and they have a little vignette that plays on video, about someone in a country where they want to harvest the oil.
    • (And you can see it's a Masonic Lodge.)
    • Instead of saying, Joe Biden and Valerie Nuland want, you know, gas and oil rights, they talk about somebody who wants to be able to talk on Facebook without restrictions and make jokes. {{ "spreading freedom"...because you know, Facebook and Twitter, Youtube, et al are so free, they are demonetizing, shadowbanning or outright deleting users like myself from their sites for their 'conservative' views that aren't. }}
    • I also thought it was interesting that the University of Denver University of Colorado Medical Center, more specifically in Denver, really pioneered organ transplantation.
    • And CIA doctors were funded through the University of Colorado in Denver.
    • And when they learn their craft, and they came here just over that hill, I don't know if you can see UPMC--the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, but there's a famous doctor--he's a great doctor named Starzl--who did the first liver transplant at the University of Colorado Denver, and then came here.
    • And the woman I interviewed--who was a 40-year operating room nurse for the transplantation team here, at the University of Pittsburgh--told me a week ago that oil sheiks would rent out a whole floor at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and get to the front of the line.
    • So that's where it's really all started. The CIA's history in organ transplantation, from an oil town. Denver, started really here in mid-80s.
  • [Day 197.1 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 1 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 198-- a little bit early here, in the morning so I'm a little scruffy.
    • But you see here Sally Yates is going to testify in front of Congress.
    • And all these are great opportunities, just for like a Senator Grassley to say, you know, did this Michael Flynn have any relationship with these Awan brothers.
    • We've heard a lot about these Awan brothers and these burglaries, and these threats of kidnapping, and these threats of House Intelligence or House IT staff.
    • Did the in your time as Deputy Attorney General, did anybody bring you the Awan Brothers case?
    • Did the FBI mention it? Or did any other law enforcement officials bring this to you as a concern for national security?
    • Now that there seems to be this journalist that keeps publishing these Social Security numbers, that are being used by more than one person....and these people are still employed with the House of Representatives does that bother you?
    • Or is that a subject that you believe should be investigated?
    • It seems like they own 12 houses,
    • They owned lots of car dealerships
    • Lots of home mortgage companies
    • They seem to have lots of ties to Pakistan, with businesses in Pakistan,
    • And transportation rice importation export lots of trucking,
    • And transportation refrigerated transportation
    • Are any of those telltale signs to you? With your deep expertise in law enforcement? What do you think about that Sally Yates?
    • All that they have to do is have one person mention the Awan Brothers on the congressional record, and the story breaks wide open
  • [Day 197.2. Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 2 - YouTube]
    • Seven I think.
    • Sorry about the mistaken date earlier.
    • There's a BP across the street. Closed.
    • I'm in 1927 Railroad Avenue, so I don't know if this is 1927 or not...[knock knock knock knock knock] 1927? {{ C&DTV on mailbox }}.
    • Supposed to be a rapidly growing business. Well-financed, helping this place Pakistani folks in America.
    • Well-financed, growing rapidly. Well, Awan Brothers United.
    • It looks like it's answering the door.
    • Going to knock one more time [knocks]. Awan Brothers United. 2017 Railroad Street Wilford Lane near Carnegie no answer
  • [Day 197.3 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 3 - YouTube]
    • Okay day 197 part 3 stuck in traffic in Pittsburgh --So no risk here
    • A lot of people want me to comment about the doctors the doctors that had their throats cut in Boston--if I know anything about that
    • I won't say anything, because I don't know anything about the case.
    • I know about Bill Weld, and the, you know, the FBI connection to organized crime, along with the CIA.
    • Boston was kind of their Ground Zero, with the Tsarnaev brothers, and before that.
    • There's been kill teams going back all the way to that can't think of his name Bulger slimy Bulger--whatever his name was--it's a long history with FBI corruption in in Boston. Whitey. Whitey bulger. And you can just google that.
    • A lot of the scams near cash, near money have been in in the Boston area, with the various forms of Bitcoin and these Pirate Bay kind of online drug schemes.
    • It all just seems to be in Boston.
    • But I'll comment on the Dr. killings.
    • If you have a legit pain clinic and the doctor field you know was definitely a legit guy. He trained at Harvard. He is from England. He was just a really first-rate pedigree.
    • A doctor any and they start a pain management clinic. People approach them and say hey, "you'd be perfect for this--you'd give us the reputation, and the kind of gravitas we need to start a pain management clinic," and they do.
    • That's the ones you usually target. If I'm a CIA guy, I don't go after second pedigree, I go after the first pedigree.
    • And I go after guys who are divorced, that are susceptible to beautiful young women.
    • They used to say in the CIA, "everything starts with a stripper."
    • I mean you know it's kind of like, "how do you make chicken cacciatore in the Hungarian cookbook? First you steal a chicken."
    • I'm sorry I didn't mean insult Hungarians, but you know the CIA cookbook was: first you get a stripper, and then that's how I get access, and then they start getting all the pillow secrets, and then you eventually start flying them around the world.
    • When you fly them to East Africa or West Africa in this case Guinea, you take them to a place, and you introduce some of these doctors, and these struggling villages, and you build this kind of sympathy toward whatever people, and then you say, "Well hey there's this pain clinic here, or there's this factory here, they're trying to get on their feet making synthetic drugs making generic drugs--here's the drug trial for it. Here's how great it is. And let's introduce this into the pain clinic, as a substitute for whatever the other drug is."
    • And at first the doctor's like, "I don't know, but then the sex is really great."
    • And then the doctor says, "I guess we could try it, and see how it goes."
    • Then he has his first couple of ODs, because the people had to double and triple the strength of their dosage.
    • And then they get cold feet.
    • The person who killed him--let's call him Bamp--he's from Guinea.
    • You don't have doctors know Bamp had the key to their their condo, their penthouse condo, 11th floor condo.
    • So Bamp somehow gets into their condo, and slices their throats.
    • Now if remember if you're JTTF, you control the media. You control the local police.
    • You can tell the local police, "here's the statement you're going to make." You give it to them, you rehearse it with them three times, then they say it.
    • If you notice on all these things, the FBI guy's not too far behind, standing right over the right shoulder of the guy, to cut in if they make any false moves.
    • And here's where you you reuse that doctor.
    • You bring in a doctor from a foreign country. The sexy hot doctor, and you know you can say whatever you want.
    • You could say she was, you know, ground up in a in a meat grinder
    • Now I'm not saying this girl Dr. B is in that category, but I'm just saying if you want to run an operation--that's how you do it.
    • You don't kill off your Golden Goose: it keeps getting you new doctors in your pain clinics.
    • You just move them to different countries, and then you do it all over again change their name change your identity.
  • [197.4 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 4 - YouTube]
    • Ok day 195 here (no it's 197) in historic Deutschtown in Pittsburg
    • As you can see, there's kind of a large area here which is kind of a plaza which is nice
    • But this street has really beautiful brickwork all along this street, it's kind of a rejuvenated neighborhood.
    • Allegheny General--the hospital--is right down there, so it's Pittsburg's known for it's hip replacements because it has all these hills and older folks getting in and out of the driveways and so forth.
    • But I don't want to talk about that. I want to talk about the Military-Industrial-Complex--do you see the transition there.
    ANd the last person who challened you was Cynthia McKinney in 2004. She said, "hey what about this budget--what about this
    Then you got knocked out of Congress, then no one would want to challenge anybody. And that's what's happened
    has challenged the MIC. Cynthia Mckinney being the last person.
  • [197.5 Hillary's Hackers, Awan Brothers Saga Deepens, Part 5 - YouTube]
    • Okay here in Deuschtown Day 197 in Pittsburgh part five.
    • This isn't doesn't relate directly, but this is an awfully pretty street here on Ohio Street
    • 435 is where the post office is. General store and then farmer's daughter right here.
    • That style of brickwork is called Spanish or Mediterranean Revival.
    • The reason why I focused on Jeff Sessions and the Judicial Minister that he's meeting with today is: he's met with him twice before.
    • Once in February, once in March, and they've asked for his extradition twice.
    • Of course Erdrogan has the one of the largest intelligence office services in NATO, and if he starts putting Gulen on trial, lots of information will come out of it.
    • Just like the metadata for the emails it's going to be a treasure trove for investigators
    • And so that's why I focus so much on Gulen and his extradition
    • So that's the follow-up there, and we'll keep on the story we'll keep on all the stories keep generating metadata keep generating links because all those go into our big metadata project that we have with Maltego
submitted by 911bodysnatchers322 to TruthLeaks [link] [comments]

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